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Copy of The Enlightenment
Transcript of Copy of The Enlightenment
A typical French salon
Rococo style in art:
The Swing by Fragonard
Baroque style in art:
Crucifixion of St. Peter by Caravaggio
Europe 1763 - 1789
Act of Union 1707
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Queen Anne 1702-1714
The Houses of Stuart and Orange seemed cursed when England suffered another succession crisis in 1694 when Queen Mary contracted smallpox and died without an heir. When her husband William became ill in 1700 Parliament made sure to solidify the English Bill of rights further by passing the Settlement Act in 1701 qualifying that any future Monarch of England must marry a non-Catholic and the crown could only pass to a non-Catholic. The crown passed to Mary's sister Anne in 1702 when William died of pneumonia. Anne had lost 13 children to illness or miscarriage and died in 1714 without an heir.
In 1714 the crown of the United Kingdom fell to Anne's 54 year old Protestant German cousin George Duke of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire. While rising to be king of the far more powerful United Kingdom, George only spoke German and preferred staying at home in Hanover. Parliament rose in power and ruled for most of his reign in the king's absence. George was succeeded by his German born son George II in 1727.
House of Hanover
King George II
George II was also born in Germany and, like his father, preferred spending his time in his homeland. He spent much of his reign in Hanover letting Parliament run England in his absence.
George III was the first Hanoverian king to be born and educated in England. He rose to the throne at age 22 in the midst of the 7 Years' War and ruled for the next 60 years.
Allies in the Seven years war (1756-1763)
Allies: Britain, Portugal, Prussia
Allies: France, Russia, Spain, Austria
Some have said the Seven Years' War was the first truly global conflict or world war, as the outcome of the war and fighting took place on all the inhabited continents except Australia.
Britain was a natural ally for Prussia for multiple reasons:
1. The rulers of both nations were German
2. Britain blocked French, Austrian and Spanish ships from entering the North and Baltic Seas thus protecting Frederick the Great's northern flank.
3. Prussian troops occupied French and Spanish troops in Europe thus allowing Britain to fight smaller armies in the overseas colonies - a theater of war that did not concern the Prussians.
Portugal was also a logical ally of Britain for they occupied Spanish attention at home on the Iberian peninsula and in South America.
Britain and Prussia came out the big winners in the conflict. Britain gained mastery over France in India and North America becoming the undisputed colonial power after the Treaty of Paris in 1763. France was left only with small territories in the Caribbean, fishing rights off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and island outposts in the Indian ocean. Frederick the Great established the kernel of a strong empire in northern Germany and cooled the anger of Austria and Russia by partitioning Poland at the end of the century.
In North America, Britain acquired Florida, Canada, and all territories east of the Mississippi. Spain acquired Louisiana, parts of Brazil and islands in the Caribbean. Britain used Indian Mughal warlords to knock France out of India. The war proved the folly of France in trying to wage a major war on three continents simultaneously.
While Britain came out on top, winning tremendous wealth overseas, it won the eternal enmity of France for the next generation and bore a tremendous cost for the conflict - 2 outcomes that would prove disastrous in it's relations with her American colonies.
Britain's Geographical Advantage
Britain became the most important naval power in the trans-Atlantic trade.
Political reforms of the British monarchy
War Zones of the Seven Years' War
Mercantilism worked the same for all European colonies no matter where they were in the world. Colonies sent trade goods and raw materials to the mother country, which in turn sent finished, processed, or manufactured goods back to the colonies. Slave labor from Africa was employed throughout the empire wherever their were shortages of labor.
Britain, which had not previously levied taxes on her colonies in order to persuade colonization, found it needed to raise taxes in her colonies to pay for the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian war in America.
American colonists resisted British taxation in a number of ways.
Smuggled South American coffee was substituted for boycotted English tea.
Class and political lines were far more blurred in the American colonies than in England. All landholding men were able to vote for colonial assemblies and men of a wide variety of backgrounds held colonial offices.
King George III
The king, parliament and the colonists had very different views about limited monarchy and British democracy. The colonists were of the opinion that as British citizens, taxes could only be raised in Parliament if colonial representatives had an opportunity to vote in that assembly. The English believed that the colonies existed (under the mercantilism system) only to enrich the mother country and citizens of those colonies had ceded any authority when they left the motherland.
The pesky colony of Massachusetts became the heart of rebellion for the various measures the British took for exercising authority over her colonies. Founded by Puritans, the descendants of the Plymouth colony were uncommonly anti-monarchist in sentiment compared to more loyal "Cavalier" colonists in Virginia, Georgia and the Carolinas.
Boston Massacre March 5, 1770
Boston Tea Party December 16, 1773
April 19, 1775
Bunker Hill June 17, 1775
Thomas Jefferson echoed the Natural Law theories of John Locke when he wrote, "We hold these truths to be self-evident...that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
Presenting the Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776
The document challenged the notion of the monarchy and the parliament and emphasized that Popular Sovereignty was the only real basis for a government.
The two key Battles of the American Revolution
Boot of Benedict Arnold memorialized at the
Battle of Saratoga October 7, 1777
After acquiring the vast interior of North America in the treaty of Paris from France, the British placated Indian concerns by forbidding English colonization beyond the Appalachian moutains in the Proclomation of 1763. Colonists routinely ignored the proclamation line.
In October 1781, the Continental army under George Washington with the aid of a blockading French fleet defeated the British at Yorktown. This defeat sealed the fate of Britain in the unpopular American rebellion and led most directly to the Treaty of Paris recognizing the new United States in 1783.
The United States adopted a new constitution in 1787 largely based upon the enlightenment philosophies from France and England. The Constitution created a new federal republic which protected individual liberties and limited the size and power of government to a degree never seen before in the world's history. This document and the revolution which brought it about served as a precedent for other colonies and European societies in future struggles for government.
the siege of Yorktown