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Reality & Choice

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Meagan McBride

on 4 December 2015

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Transcript of Reality & Choice

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

William Glasser

What do
you want?
Reality therapy
Choice theory
: the theoretical basis for reality therapy. It explains why and how we function.
Reality Therapy
: provides a delivery system for helping individuals take more effective control on their lives.
Choice Theory & Reality Therapy

& Roque

Choice Theory
What are you doing?
Is what you’re doing getting you to what you want?
Together we can work out what
you can do to get want you want
Boss Management vs Lead Management
Final thought from Dr Glasser
“We Learn . . .
10% of what we read
20% of what we hear
30% of what we see
50% of what we see and hear
70% of what we discuss
80% of what we experience
95% of what we teach others.”

Balancing needs
Unfulfilled needs and inappropriate behaviour
The picture in our heads
Conflicts in satisfying needs for control
Total behaviour
Principles of the choice theory

Does the idea of needs and satisfying them remind you of any other theory's?
Hint: the triangle
Your turn to think!

How this relates to us?

What does this mean?
• Explains why and how people behave.
• All of our behaviour is purposeful, and the purpose is always to attempt to satisfy the basic biological and physiological needs;
- survival
- love and belonging
- power
- freedom
- fun

How does this relate to people?

Choice theory states that:
All we do is behave,
That almost all behaviour is chosen, and
That we are driven by our
to satisfy five basic needs: survival, love and belonging, power, freedom and fun.

The Glasser approach. (2010). Retrieved from William Glasser insitute: http://www.wglasser.com/the-glasser-approach/choice-theory

Choice theory

If we learn to choose effective, responsible behaviours, which, in practice, means learning to control our actions and thoughts in a way that satisfies our needs and does not deprive someone else of a chance to satisfy their needs, we will usually be happy, healthy and in effective control of our lives.
(Edwards & Watts, 2008, pp. 154 - 161)

The behaviors we do to meet these needs are called "total behavior"
Indicates how we live our lives.
Attempt to control ourselves = control the world around us.
Can only control our own behavior.
Our behaviors are driven by the 5 universal basic needs.

Reality therapy
Based on choice theory
Can be used in any situation where a person needs to learn to satisfy their needs in a responsible manner
We are in control of our behaviour, especially our actions and thoughts
Key points when using reality therapy
Focus on the present
Avoid discussing symptoms and complaints
Avoid criticizing, blaming and/or complaining
Remain non-judgmental
Focus on specifics
Be patient and supportive
Act out a scenario which uses the reality therapy method.
5 minutes to plan

• A Boss manager is a person who is coercive and uses external control psychology to deal with students who do not do what the manager wants them to do.
• A lead manager is a person who uses internal control psychology and work with students to help them to self evaluate their behavior, to solve problems and use questioning and to guide them to achieve.

What is it?
Boss manager:

• Establishes the task and standards for students. Students must simply adjust to the job as the boss defines it.
• Boss management usually tells rather than shows as this is a more autocratic way of managing.
• Boss management is the exclusive evaluator. Students are considered unable or biased. Bosses tend to settle for just enough quality work to get by.
• When students resist, the boss uses coercion, usually in the form of punishment, to obtain compliance.

Lead manager:

• Encourages students to discuss quality of work they want to perform and the constraints they wish to put on themselves.
• The lead manager constantly tries to fit the learning task to the skills of students.
• Lead manager provides students with models of how they should perform and allows them to evaluate their own work, acting on the assumption that students know not only what high quality work is but also when they are producing it.
• A lead manager is a facilitator, establishing a non adversarial classroom atmosphere without coercion.

William Glassers view:

• William Glasser was very big on the theory that preventing discipline problems depends to a large extent on establishing principles and procedures associated with a quality school and substituting the coercive boss management system with the lead management system and students will respond better to this type of management.

Glassers Discipline prevention components:
The purpose of these social problem solving meetings is to encourage students to solve discipline problems as a class. The components of discipline prevention include
• Developing goals of instruction
• Establishing classroom rules together
• Establishing and maintaining classroom operations
• Gaining commitment
• Implementing consequences.

(Edwards & Watts, 2008, p165)
Group activity:
• Students will get into groups of 3 or 4
• They will discuss different examples of what boss and lead managers do.
• Share experiences of teachers or bosses who adopted the boss management style or lead management style within their groups.
• Share to the class different examples and experiences and place on the whiteboard.

Born on May 11, 1925 in Cleveland, Ohio
Raised in
Cleveland, Ohio.
His father was a clock repairman. His mother was a stay at home mother.
Attended Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland where he earned a BS in Chemical Engineering.
Glasser was initially a Chemical Engineer but went back to Case Western Reserve University and earned a masters degree in 1949 in clinical psychiatry when it became apparent to him that this was his real interest in life.
He attended medical school at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, and took his psychiatric training at the Veterans Administration Hospital in West Los Angeles and UCLA (1954-57).
William Glasser, at a glance (get it, his last name is "glasser"..a glance....
But wait, there's more!
He became Board Certified in 1961 and was in private practice from 1957 to 1986.
He was allegedly

thrown off the staff at the hospital for his anti-Freudian beliefs

and thus took his first job as a staff psychiatrist at a reform school for girls in Ventura, California, where he found many of the case studies that he later used in Reality Therapy.
After closing his private practice, Glasser devoted himself to writing, lecturing, being an adjunct professor of counseling at California State University and training people in his ideas.
Glasser died on August 23, 2013 of respiratory failure stemming from pneumonia.
Professional Contributions
His contributions include numerous mental health books that allude to the belief
that one is capable of changing behavior and mental health without medications.
Despite being a psychiatrist, the psychiatric community as a whole did not readily accept his body of work.
He has a
non-traditional approach to psychiatry
. He
does not
believe in mental illness unless there is something is organically wrong with the brain that can be confirmed by a pathologist.
However, social workers, counselors, psychologists and teachers were large proponents and began implementing his practices in schools, clinics, and correctional institutions.
In 1967 he founded a program to train people in reality therapy that would eventually be renamed the William Glasser Institute in Tempe, AZ.
A "handy" way to remember the innate needs
Quality World
(this is the picture in our heads)
Basic needs are satisfied by pictures in our heads.
Clients and counselors do not have the same pictures. (none of us do!)

Why does it matter that our worlds look different?
What about when we compare our quality world to others?
What do we do to fullfill these needs?

Primary goal: help clients get connected with the people they have chosen to put in their quality world.
Therapists help clients learn better ways of fulfilling all of their needs, including achievement, power or inner control, freedom or independence, and fun.
serve to focus treatment planning and setting both short-term and long-term goals.
assist clients in making more effective and responsible choices related to their wants and needs.

Therapist Role
client how to engage in self-evaluation
Is what you are choosing to do getting what you want and need?
How would you most like to change your life?
What do you want in life that you are not getting?
What would you have in your life if you were to change?
What do you have to do now to make the changes happen?
This is done through WDEP model
better relationships, increased happiness, and a sense of inner control of their lives

Buck, Nancy. (2013).
Peaceful Parenting Navigating the Push-Pull Relationship Between Parents and their Children
. Psychology Today.

Edwards, Clifford. (2008).
Classroom Discipline & Management
. Fifth Edition. Hamilton Printing Company. New Jersey.

Glasser, William. (1998).
Choice Theory
. HarperCollins. New York.

Glasser, William. (2007).
The Glasser Quality School
. Journal of Adventist Education.

Lynch, William.
Glaser Theory of Classroom Management
. eHow. www.ehow.com

Vitell, Paul. (2013). New York Times:
William Glasser, 88, Doctor Who Said One Could Choose Happiness, Is Dead
. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/05/us

Woo, Elaine. (2013). Los Angeles Times:
Obituaries Reality Therapy Psychiatrist
. http://articles.latimes.com/print/2013/august/28/local/la-me-william-glasser

Meagan McBride
Shown to be effective with EBD students when they were taught to apply principals of reality therapy to their lives
Passaro, Moon & Wiest (2004) found that using Reality Therapy with EBD middle-school males showed positive indicators in reduced out-of-school suspensions, amount of time spent in general education and increased positive daily behaviors.
Shown to be effective as a method of counseling to help clients overcome obstacles such as decreased participation or non-compliance, depression, loss of independence, and lack of education
Uppal (2003) looked at the use of combining Reality Therapy and physical therapy for patients whose medical illnesses are not in their control. The study found that Reality Therapy used in tandem with Physical Therapy creates a mind-body connection --emotional and mental states directly affecting one's physical state.
Shown to be not as effective with young children as they may not cognitively understand the underlying principles of reality therapy
A study found, however, that Reality Therapy is effective with young clients when paired with play therapy (Davis, E. S., & Pereira, J. K., 2013).
Where is it used?
Multicultural Aspects
An article published in the International Journal of Reality Therapy looks at Reality Therapy in comparison to Israeli, Korean, Japanese, Taiwanese, and Australian culture and conclude that Reality Therapy have "universal attributes" and can be interpreted in any religion and culture
Another article published in the International Journal of Reality Therapy was about a choice therapy training that was offered to women in Albania in 2001. The women who participated in the training took part in role-plays and learned how to identify their problem situations more clearly: "Every one of us have discovered through the training, a powerful awareness of our personal identity and dignity and the freedom of choices that open before us even within the restrictive norms of the society in which we live" (Tham, 2001).
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