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Ancient Rome

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pia massa

on 30 August 2016

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Transcript of Ancient Rome


• Understand the main characteristics of ancient Rome.

• Recognize the influence of the geography of Rome on its historical and cultural development.

• Identify things around us that come from ancient Rome and that are part of our cultural heritage.

• Appreciate Roman culture as a foundation of our civilization.

The Environment in Rome
Chile and Italy
The Environment in Rome
Italy is a Peninsula, located in the South of Europe and in the center of the Mediterranean Sea. Italy has a strategic location. It is great for maintaining contact with all of the areas of the Mediterranean
Index
The Environment in Rome.


Ancient Roman Society.

Political Organization of Ancient Rome.

Monumental Rome.

In this unit you will learn to:
Public plazas are usually used to celebrate sports victories in Chile. Plaza Italia, located in Santiago is a great example.
Rome and the Italian Peninsula
These countries share more than just monuments. Both Chile and Italy have got a temperate climate, a long coast line and a mountainous terrain.
Italy nowadays

Official Name: Republic of Italy
Capital: Rome
Language: Italian
Total Population: 60million inhabitants
Currency: Euro
Religion: Catholic
In 1910, Italy donated a monument for the citizens that had immigrated to Chile. It shows an angel with a torch and a lion. The later represents power, control, and force.
Where is Italy located?
What seas surround it?
Where is Rome?
Do you recognize any of the major Italian mountains?
What shape does the Italian Peninsula have?
The ancient Romans settled on the shores of the Tiber River. Such river starts in the Apennines mountain Range.

We can identify some similarities we have already seen, between Greece and Chile. The Romans also inhabited a terrain with mountains, coasts, and divided by rivers.

The Tiber River was very important for ancient Romans. It connected Rome with the coast. It was also an economic source.

Nevertheless, the river often caused flooding, therefore the ancient Romans founded their cities in higher places.
Look at the picture and discuss.
Were the Romans sailors like the Greeks? Why?
The Roman territory was known for its large plains, rolling hills, and a lack of natural ports.

This is why the Romans were countryside people and not sailors like the Greeks.
Where did the Romans locate their cities?
At first, Rome was a little community made out of farmers and shepherds. These people were able to adapt to the different seasons and grew a wide variety of products. (Such as cereals, vegetables, and fruit trees. They also herded cows, sheep, and goats.)

As we mentioned earlier, the strategic location on the Tibet River was an important reason for their success.
The Etruscans taught Romans the alphabet.
To the North the Etruscan culture wanted to conquer the Roman's lands.

To the South the Greeks founded poleis, developing a rich culture called Magna Graecia.
Rome was located in the middle of Italy, and they had some conflicts with their neighbors:
At the end the Romans were able to conquer both cultures, but they acquired some aspects of each culture, such as their literature, art, trade and navigational techniques.
Ancient Roman Society
The Mythical Origins of Rome
Index
The Environment in Rome.

Ancient Roman Society.

Political Organization of Ancient Rome.

Monumental Rome.
Power Point Activity
Slide 5
Power Point Activity
Slides 2 and 3
Power Point Activity
Slide 4
Ancient Roman Society
Rome, a People in Arms
As we know Romans were mostly farmers and shepherds. Still, they had to be ready to take their weapons and defend their territory. As soon as the conflict was over, they could return to their daily farm life.

This made Romans not only farmers, but also good warriors. To expand their territory and conquer other countries they had to be extremely organized. Therefore, Romans established laws. Everyone, including the authorities, had to obey them,

They created the best machine of war known in ancient times. Their organization and complexity of their chain of command, tactical movement on the battlefield, and strict discipline lead them to succeed.

The generals also made the troops follow the law. Because of this, they gained the discipline which allowed the small village of Rome to become a great imperial military power.
Ancient Roman Society
Rome became powerful because its location offered 3 advantages.
The Tiber River allowed food and goods to be brought to Rome.
Rome is in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, which allows it to trade or expand in all directions
Rome was built on several hills, so it was difficult for enemies to attack.
A glimpse of teenage life in ancient Rome.
Ancient Roman Society
Patricians and Plebeians
In Rome the people who worked the land owned it. These people were free man. If the land belonged to someone else, they were slaves.
The people on ancient Rome were divided in 3 groups.
This word comes from pater or father. They were descendants of the founding fathers of the city. They were recognized as citizens. This gave them the political right to choose leaders. Also they could participate in assemblies.
They did not belong to the patrician families, but they contributed to the wealth of the city. They were free people, but had no political rights. They belonged to the plebs, or common people, not citizens.
They were not free, had no political rights, and were not considered citizens.
Patricians:
Plebeians:
Slaves:
The Plebeians, at the beginning, did not mind not participating on the government (because in that way they were not forced to join the military). But a while after, when the rules changed, they demanded the same rights as the Patricians: be able to participate in the discussions of laws and to receive some of the loot distributed after wars.

The Patricians did not want to give these rights to the plebs, because they were not “real” citizens. At the end, to reestablish peace, the Plebeians were allowed to become Roman citizens.

One day the Plebeians decided they wanted to live Rome and found their own city. They were tired of working hard, while the Patricians got the benefit.
The Patricians got worried, because they would not have people to work their lands, so they told the following story to the Plebeians:
One day, all of the parts of the body rebelled against the stomach, which they accused of doing nothing while they all worked.

After punishing the idle organ, they decided that they would all refuse to feed the stomach.
The entire body felt weak, thought. Even though it was too late, the body parts finally understood the importance of the organ they had thought was useless.
Activity: "The city of the Plebeians"

In your copybook write and answer the following questions:
All the other organs in the body represented ______________________ because _________________________________________________
The plebeians finally decided to stay in Rome. Why do you think they stayed? Discuss with tour classmates.
Index
The Environment in Rome.

Ancient Roman Society.

Political Organization of Ancient Rome.

Monumental Rome.
Political Organization of Ancient Rome
The Roman Monarchy and the Last Roman King
The Republic
Crisis in the Republic: An Empire is Born
After Rome was founded it became a MONARCHY.

Its first king was Romulus. Many kings came after him.

Some kings INHERITED their power, while others were elected (only from an important family).
These kings brought great progress to Rome:
Built stronger walls.

Made the city cleaner.

Freed the city of marshes and related pests.

Built the first sewers and aqueducts.

Organized the military.

Began the first military conquest.
MONARCHY
The Kings:
They had to respect the LAW.
This law said that they needed to protect and communicate with the people about important issues.
A special place was created to discuss the relevant matters. It was called:
SENATE
Only the oldest patrician leaders could participate in it.
Every king respected the law, except one:
Tarquin Superbus or Tarquin the Proud.
One day Romans faced a dilemma. They did not have a king or a government to rule them.

The decision of choosing a new monarch was difficult.
Most of them did not want the power to be in only one person, so instead,
they gave the power to two men called CONSULS.

When he broke the law Romans were angry, and decided to expel him and his family from Rome (509 B.C.).
Consuls:

They were in power for only a year.
They had the power to veto the decisions of the other (forcing them to be in agreement).
Their decisions had to be approved by the Senate.
A new form of political organization was created:
The aim of a Republic was to balance the power, so no abuse of authority would take place.
In Rome worked like this:
Senate:
the most important institution. It approved laws that the consuls had to follow.
Justice Tribunals:
decided if people committed crimes or not, and if they needed to be punished for it.
We owe this fundamental principle of
modern democracy
to the Romans.
The Roman Republic took political and military control of the Italian Peninsula.
But in the South
things got difficult between Rome and Carthage.

Carthage had regional power in the North of Africa, and
they could take the Mediterranean away from Rome
.

At the end the Romans
were able to win and after a large-scale conquest they
controlled the Mediterranean World.
As Rome grew,
people started to fight over power and control
. A long period of corruption and confrontation happened, and
it led to the destruction of the Republic.
The Romans decided
to give all the power to Octavian Augustus
, and thus began the period of the
Roman Empire
.
Powers of the Emperor:
- Commanded the Roman military.
- Named magistrates and presided over the Senate.
- Dictated laws.
- Enjoyed great luxuries and wealth.
- Was emperor for his entire life.
- Designated a successor.
The Fall of the Empire
a. The empire was too large to govern effectively.
b. The army was not what it used to be. There was corruption in the military - dishonest generals and non-Roman soldiers.
c. Civil wars broke out between different political groups.
d. Emperors were often selected by violence, or by birth, so the head of government was not always a capable leader.
e. The rich became lazy and showed little interest in trying to solve Rome problems.
f. The poor were overtaxed and overworked. They were very unhappy.
g. The population was shrinking due to starvation and disease. That made it difficult to manage farms and government effectively.
h. The Empire started shrinking due to several attacks.

Problems towards the end of the Empire included:
Rome had quite a run. First a monarchy, then a republic, then an empire – all roads led to Rome for over 1200 years.

In the Mediterranean, Rome was in charge. During the Imperial period, Rome had some wonderful emperors.

Rome also suffered from a series of bad, corrupt and just plain crazy emperors. There were lots of reasons why Rome fell.
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