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Relative clauses.

Relative clauses (Defining and non-defining)
by

Kelly Paola Peña Rodríguez

on 19 April 2016

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Transcript of Relative clauses.

- We can use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give additional information about something without starting another sentence.
RELATIVE CLAUSES
Relative Clauses...
Defining and
Non-Defining

I bought a new car. It is very fast.
-> I bought a new car
that
is very fast.
Examples...
She lives in New York. She likes living in New York.
-> She lives in New York,
which
she likes.
A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl?
-> Do you know the girl
who
is talking to Tom?
Relative Pronouns
A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause.
Relative pronouns can refer to singular or plural, and there is no difference between male and female.
It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that its relative clause modifies.
REMEMBER:
"
Who
"
(subject) and
"
whom
"
(object) are generally only for people.

"
Whose
"
is for ownership.

"
Which
"
is for things.

"
That
"
can be used for things and people only in defining relative clauses (clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not simply add extra information)
Defining Clauses
A defining clause tells us which specific person or thing we are talking about in a larger group of people or things.
A defining relative clause is
not
separated from the rest of the sentence by commas or parentheses.
EXAMPLES.
The woman
who visited me in the hospital
was very kind.

The umbrella
that I bought last week
is already broken.

The man
who stole my backpack
has been arrested.

The weather
that we had this summer
was beautiful.

Children
who hate chocolate
are uncommon.

They live in a house
whose roof is full of holes
.

An elephant is an animal
that lives in hot countries
.

Let's go to a country
where the sun always shines
.

The reason
why I came here today
is not important.

Is that
the boy that
you met at the Christmas party?

Have you met
the girls that
live next door?

Dogs
that like cats
are very unusual.
REMEMBER...
Commas are not used to separate defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence. Commas or parentheses are
ONLY
used to separate non-defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence.
Non-Defining clauses
Give us extra information about the person or thing. It is not necessary information. We don’t need it to understand who or what is being referred to.
Gorillas,
which are large and originate in Africa,
can sometimes be found in zoos.
EXAMPLES.
EXAMPLES.
John's mother,
who lives
in Scotland
, has 5
grandchildren.


My friend John,
who went to
the same school as me
, has just
written a best-selling novel.

My grandmother,
who is dead now
,
came from the
North of England.



I've just come
back from London,
where John lives.

Yesterday I met a woman
named Susan,
whose
husband works in London.


We stopped at the museum,
which we had never
visited before.
INTRODUCTORY EXPRESSIONS
Non-defining clauses can be introduced by expressions like all of or many of followed by the relative pronoun.
We can use introductory expressions like:
all of, any of, some of, a few of, both of, each of, either of, half of, many of, most of, much of, none of, one of, two of, etc.
ONLY WHEN WE USE:

- FOR PEOPLE -->
WHOM
- FOR THINGS -->
WHICH
For example.
There were a lot of people
at the party,
many of
whom

I had known for years.



There are 14 girls in my class,
a few of
whom
are my friends.



He was carrying his belongings,
many of
which
were broken.


"WHICH"
The relative pronoun ''which'' at the beginning of a non-defining relative clause can refer to all the information contained in the previous part of the sentence, rather than to just one word.
EXAMPLES.
Chris did really well in his exams,
which
is quite a surprise.



My friends were all hiding in
my apartment,
which

isn't what I'd expected.

She's studying to
become a doctor,
which
is difficult.
Relative pronouns in defining relative clauses
These relative pronouns appear at the start of the defining relative clause and refer to a noun that appears earlier in the sentence.
"THAT"
IN SPOKEN ENGLISH
The pronouns ''who'', ''whom'', and ''which'' are often replaced by ''that'' in spoken English.
''Whom'' is very formal and is only used in written English. You can use ''who'' or ''that'' instead, or omit the pronoun completely.
EXAMPLES
The dish
that
I ordered
was delicious. (which)

The man
that
came with
her has already left. (who)


The doctor
that
I was hoping
to see wasn't on duty. (whom)
OTHER USES OF
"THAT"
''That'' is often used to introduce defining relative clauses when they follow the words
something
,
anything, everything, nothing, all

or a superlative.


It may be omitted when it is not the subject of the clause.


EXAMPLES...
There's something (that)
you should know.

It was the best film
(that) I've ever seen.


Do you have anything
(that) will help my throat?

He had thousands of books,
most of
which
he had read.
STRUCTURE.
Subject + relative pronoun + first sentence + relative clause
1. First case.
2. Second case.
Subject + first sentence + object + relative pronoun + relative clause
REMEMBER.
A relative pronoun
can be ommited
if it is the object of the clause
Example.
That is the house (
that
) I told you about
I can't find the books (
that
) you lent me
What is the most impressive building (
that
) you have ever seen?
The house (
that
) my brother bought last year was very expensive
The most exciting place
that we have ever visited is
the Masai Mara in Kenya.
EXAMPLE
He picked up a handful of
stones,
one of
which
was sharp.
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