Transcript of AP Human Geography Quiz Grade
By; Lauren Jayce Rivers The Industrial Revolution resulted in new social, economic, political, and industrial inventions. Wood was the first main source to the Industrial Revolution. It took decades for the techniques and new ideas to spread. People would make household tools and agricultural equipment in their homes or the village. Home-based manufacturing was known as the cottage industry. The one important cottage industry was textile manufacturing. Merchants would hire putter-outs that would drop off wool at homes, and women and children would sort, clean, and spin it. When it was finished, the putters-out would pick it up and were paid by the amount that was done("piece rate"). Richard Arkwright, a wigmaker and barber from the city of Preston, improved the spinning yarn process. He first made a spinning frame in 1768 that used rollers to untangle twisted cotton fibers before it was spun around a spindle. He then patented for carding. Since the invention needed more than human power, the textile and iron industry decided in adopting Watt's steam engine. The textile industry was soon integrated into a small number of large firms in a few locations. The Industrial Revolution started in the United Kingdom in the late 1700s. It began because of population growth from 1750 to 1950. Transportation played a critical role in the Industrial Revolution. Francis Egerton, the second Duke of Brigdewater chose to build a canal between Worsley and Manchester. This started a generation of British canals and started industrial goods and workers to move longer distances faster and more reasonably. But, canals were surpassed by the "iron horse", or the railway. The railway showed the impact of new engineering on the Industrial Revolution. It was created through teamwork, but improvements were needed, in the locomotive and iron rails. A locomotive using Watt's steam engine was invented by William Symington and William Murdoch in 1784. Though, a few years earlier Richard Reynolds had created a track for wagons to cross uneven surfaces in coal mines. In 1812 William Hedley showed that the steam locomotive could run on rails if there rims in the wheels. The first locomotive, the Rocket,was designed by George Stephenson, and was opened in Stockton and Darlington in 1825. In 1829 it won a race against a horse going at 24 miles per hour. The traditional method of bleaching cotton was to boil it or leave it out in the sun. For boiling, the cloth was put in a solution of ashes and then sour milk. In 1746 John Roebuck and Samuel Garbett established a factory where instead of using sour milk, you would use sulfuric acid. Bleaching was modernized by Charles Tennant in 1798 and made a powder made from chlorine gas and lime, which is safer than sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid was also used for dyeing clothes. When sulfuric acid is mixed with various metals, it produces vitriol, and with different with metals it would create a different color. The largest textile factories are owned by chemical companies. The food processing industry was a result of the chemical industry. An increasing number of urban factory workers who couldn't obtain their own fresh food needed preserved food, yet, some preserving techniques like drying, fermenting, and pickling were known since ancient times, but had limited application to the needs of nineteenth-century people. In 1810 Nicolas Appert, a French confectioner, had developed canning, by using a glass bottle that was sterilized in boiling water. The process was better made by Peter Durand's invention of the tin can that was lighter, cheaper and easier that a glass in 1839. Canning kills the bacteria that causes food to spoil. It needs high temperatures over time. Pending on certain products, it would've taken 4 to 5 hours for the can to be kept in boiling water. Calcium chloride was added to raise its temperature and reduced proper sterilization time to 25 to 40 minutes. The steam engine was patented by James Watt in 1769. He was a mathematical instrument maker from Glasgow, Scotland. Ancient Greek Hero of Alexandria had built engines ran by steam, but it was only for one's own usage. Watt had built the first useful steam engine that could pump water easily than water mills. The iron industry was the first to increase in production because of Watt's steam invention. Henry Cort, a navy agent, made an iron forge near Fareham,England where iron was shaped into useful things. He patented two processes: the puddling and the rolling. Puddling was reheating pig iron and when it was pasty, stir it with iron rods until impurities burned off. Rolling was passing pig iron between iron rollers to take off scum. The combination of Watt's engine and Cort's iron processing increased iron manufacturing skills. It was the start of innovation in the mining, engineering, transportation, and other industries. Abraham Darby of Coalbrookdale, England made from high quality iron smelted with purified carbon. His invention provided a huge source of energy for the iron industry. When James Watt went to business for himself in 1795, he met Matthew Boulton and they created the Soho Foundry in Birmingham, England to produce hundreds of machines to improve industrial processes. The Industrial Revolution was further symbolized in Britain's Crystal Palace. A greenhouse-like building made of iron and glass was used to build the Crystal Palace, created to shelter the 1851 World's Fair, or the "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations". The fair had a gallery of machinery from 100 years earlier. The United kingdom was the world's leading industrial power when Queen Elizabeth opened the Crystal Palace. The UK made more than half of the world's cotton and iron.It also mined two-thirds of the world's coal, and surpassed the rest of the world. Europeans reached inventions of the Industrial Revolution by the late 1700s. First, the Belgians started with new coal-mining techniques. Then, the French had the first coal-fired blast furnace for making iron. Also, the Germans made the first industrial cotton mill. Though, nowhere else in Europe was impacted until the 1800s. Political instability delayed the Industrial Revolution to head to Europe. The French Revolution lasted from 1789 until 1799 and the Napoleonic Wars from 1796-1815 disturbed Europe. Likewise,Germany didn't become a unified country until the 1870s. Europe's political problems disturbed the flow of modern transportation systems, primarily the railway. Since cooperation was needed to calmly build a railway system, yet half of Europe was disorganized, railways in some parts of Europe was delayed by 50 years. The Industrial Revolution finally reached the Netherlands,Russia, and Sweden in the late 1800s, yet their development didn't add up to Belgium, Germany, and France until the twentieth century. Other Southern and Eastern European countries joined the Industrial Revolution during the twentieth century. When the Industrial Revolution reached the United States, it grew much faster than Europe. While the United States had independence in 1776, they were still an agricultural society and still relied on imported goods from Britain. To manufacture in the US was more expensive than in Britain because labor and capital were slim, and shipping to European markets was expensive. Full transcript
In Pawtucket, Rhode Island the first US mill was created in 1791, by Samuel Slater, a former worker of Arkwright's factory in England. After 1808, the textile industry grew quickly when the US government charged a barrier on European trade to avoid the Napoleonic Wars. The textile industry grew from 8,000 spindles in 1808 to 31,000 in 1811.
In 1860, the United States became second to the United Kingdom as a major industrial nation. Instead of using textiles, dominant US industries used North America's ample food and lumber resources. Not until the third section of the nineteenth century did the United States use new manufacturing techniques in the iron and steel industry.