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Transcript of Backward Design
1. .Nelson Graff Teacher Education Quarterly
Vol. 38, No. 3, The Roles of Teacher Educators, Supervisors, and Mentors in Professionalizing Teacher Education (Summer 2011), pp. 151-168
2. Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (expanded second edition). Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
3. Backward Design Model - Educational Learning Theories. (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2015, from https://sites.google.com/a/nau.edu/educationallearningtheories/backward-design-model
Brief Video Overview
Stage 1: Identify Desired Results
Stage 1 Questions
STAGE 1 ELEMENTS
Stage 1 Example
Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence
FORMAL AND INFORMAL ASSESSMENTS
FORMAL AND INFORMAL ASSESSMENTS
Valid, Reliable and Sufficient Measures
Six Facets of Understanding
Range of Assessment
1. What activities must the learner complete and what are the supplementary materials that correspond with each of those activities?
2. What instructional strategies will prove most effective?
TIP: First think about the essential knowledge and skills the learners need to demonstrate!
STAGE 3 QUESTIONS
1. What sort of learning experience will promote the achievement of the instructional goal?
2. How will the learning strategy support the students' understandings?
3. How can advancement be tracked?
4. In what sequence will the lesson be planned? How will the instruction be differentiated?
5. Are the learning events in Stage 3 compatible with the learning events in Stages 1 and 2?
STAGE 3 ELEMENTS
AGAIN, refer to the 6 Facets of Understanding
STAGE 3 ELEMENTS
LEARN the following:
STAGE 3 EXAMPLE
Various food groups and how each group is categorized, human nutritional needs (for carbohydrates, protein, sugar, fat, sodium, vitamins -- and which foods supply them), minimum daily requirements, health problems associated with poor nutrition, how to read nutrition facts, etc.
Health textbook, nutritional videos, USDA pamphlet on food pyramid.
Methods of Instruction:
Lectures, collaborative group work, individual activities.
Backward Design and Group Application
STAGE 3 ELEMENTS
5 Elements of increased autonomy:
1. Skill is introduced.
2. Skill is performed with instruction/ under guidance or supervision.
3. Skill is performed when mandated by instructor.
4. Skill is performed with some prompting.
5. Skill is performed by student's own direction/ at student's own discretion.
Presentation By: Kathleen Deegan, Brenda Machuga, and Raisa Khan
“To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you're going so that you better understand where you are now so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.”
—Stephen R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
Ralph W. Tyler introduced the idea of "backward design" (without using this particular term) in 1949 when referring to a statement of objectives.
Understanding by Design (UsD) Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins 1998/1999.
Backwards Design is the process.
Beginning with the end in mind.
here, why, what?
ook and Hold
xplore and Equip
ethink, Revise, Reflect
Start with the goals/transfer of learning
State the standards
What should students know, understand, and be able to do?
What is the ultimate transfer that the teacher will seek?
What will your students remember years later?
What knowledge and skills will be acquired?
What outcomes are targeted?
What are the essential question will be explored in-depth?
What do we want the student to focus their learning on?
Traditional Teaching Methods:
Get though chapters on good nutrition with students.
Students will plan a nutritionally balanced diet for themselves and others
How will we know if students have achieved the desired results and met the standards?
What will we accept as evidence of student understanding and proficiency?
What evidence will students provide to you demonstrating that they have achieved the course goals?
Through what authentic performance tasks will students demonstrate the desired understandings?
By what criteria will performances of understanding be judged?
Through what other evidence (e.g., quizzes, tests, academic prompts, observations, homework, journals) will students demonstrate achievement of the desired results?
How will students reflect upon and self-assess their learning?
Are . . .
Students asked to exhibit their understanding through authentic performance tasks?
Appropriate criterion-based scoring tools used to evaluate student products and performances?
Various appropriate assessment formats used to provide additional evidence of learning?
The assessments used as feedback for students and teachers, as well as for evaluation?
Students encouraged to self-assess?
1. Can Explain
2. Can Interpret
3. Can Apply
4. Have Perspective
5. Can Empathize
6. Have Self-Knowledge
Selected tasks must:
Support students in developing understanding;
Give students opportunities to demonstrate that understanding;
Identify and differentiate levels or degrees of understanding.
What is the food pyramid trying to make us see?
How can we use the food pyramid?
What is the meaning of “a serving?”
What are the possible reactions to having a second serving?
What are the misconceptions about carbohydrates?
How are my views about food shaped by pop culture?
1. “Teaching to the Test” -- Despite the negative connotation that comes along with that phrase, teaching to the test is exactly what the role of the instructor should be. This does not mean teaching the test itself, of course. But if a known final test or assessment is required, then backward design can be a useful way to prepare learners to perform well on the final assessment.
2. For Specific Learners, Instructors, and Instruction-- mostly K-12, not all lessons can utilize this design model however.
Students are not as likely to become so lost in the factual detail of a unit that they miss the point of studying the original topic.
Instruction looks toward global understandings and not just daily activities; daily lessons are constructed with a focus on what the overall "gain" from the unit is to be.
Assessment is designed before lesson planning, so that instruction drives students toward exactly what they need to know.