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sarah sa

on 12 October 2013

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Transcript of llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll

Applied Linguistics
Finally, every method has its advantages , and some disadvantages
. But by using technology , strategies , style , and some affective factors one
.can learn these methods successfully and easily.
The field of linguistics and teaching in the 20th century is marked by the development of different foreign language teaching methods and approaches. Some have no or small following and others are widely used. Although modern
foreign language teaching has adopted completely new
methods, the work of language professionals in
the period between 1950 and 1980 contributed
significantly to scientific views in the field of
second language teaching and learning.
Affective - Humanistic Approach
- The goal of the Grammar-Translation approach was to make learners able to read and translate literary masterpieces and classics and not to speak a foreign language.

Approach :
Prator and Celce-Murcia (1979) listed the major characteristics of Grammar-Translation:

- Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language;
 -Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words;
 - Grammar provides the rules for putting words together,
and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words;
- Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early;
 - Little attention is paid to the context of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis;
 - Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue;
 - Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.

grammar-translation appro
fall from favour to its lack of potential for lively communication.
Language Teaching
Approaches In The

20 Century

-Began to experiment with new ways of teaching language like direct approach in twentieth-century
-This approach's name comes from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language.
-And it's also called natural method as it's based on the way children learn their native language
its main features are

-Only the use of target language is allowed in class.
-Objects should be used to help student understand the meaning.
-First speaking is taught and then reading and writing.
-The learner should be actively involved in using the target language in realistic -everyday situations.
-Pronunciation should be worked on right from outset.
-The teacher demonstrate not explain or translate.
-Grammar should be taught inductively.

The direct approach was developed by Britez

- The ability of communicating in the target language
is not a goal.
James Samuel Coleman
Oral-Situational Approach
A reaction to the reading approach. This approach was dominant in Britain during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s .
1- The spoken language is primary.
2- All language material is practiced orally before writing it .
3- Only the target language should be used in the classroom
Cognitive Approach :
It is a reaction to the behaviorist features of the
Audiolingual approach.
1- Language learning is viewed as acquisition , not habit formation.
2- Learners are responsible for their own learning.
3- Grammar must be taught deductively.
4- pronunciation is de-emphasized.
5- Reading and writing are important as listening and speaking.
6- Vocabulary learning is important.
7- Errors are viewed as inevitable .
8- Teachers must be professional
at teaching the target language.
Communicative Approach
-It depends on the communication ,because it need a practical
situation such as the work of anthropological linguistics.
-Hymes in his book in 1972 who view depends on communication.
This theory give birth to the communicative movement.
-His view is that, there are rules of syntax are meaningless.
-This means that a person who attains communicative competence
has the knowledge and ability for language use with respect to actually.
-Performed and what it is doing entails..
So this theory is useful for people how to learn foreign language or how they use it , and has central point around which everything else revolves.

Learning a foreign
language is a process
of self realization and of relating to other people .
* Respect for the individual's feelings ( students and teacher )
is very important.
* Communication that is meaningful to the learner is emphasized.
* Class atmosphere is considered more important than materials or methods.
* Peer support and interaction are viewed as necessary for learning.
* Teacher is counselor or facilitator.
- Of the most important scholars of this theory:
Curran / 1976
The philosophy behind the Counseling - Learning method of language learning and an over view of how it works , serving as a framework for teachers and learner in general.
Language acquisition occurs if and only if the goal of the language teaching is communication.

* Listening is the skill that allows all other skills to develop over time.
* Language is acquired rather than learned and acquisition occurs in a natural order.
* comprehensible input is essential.
* Error correction is not necessary and may be counterproductive.
* It is essential to lower the affective filter to encourage students to use language freely.
- Of the most important scholars of this theory:
Krashen / 1983
- Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five main hypotheses:
* The Acquisition - Learning hypothesis.
* The Monitor hypothesis.
* The Natural order hypothesis.
* The Input hypothesis.
* The Affective filter hypothesis.
it was viewed as the most us able skills to have in a foreign language .
it depends on many points such as vocabulary is controlled al first and then expanded .
also translation is important point ,in addition to that ,
the skill of reading is important for correct pronunciation
and also the skill of writing.
Teaching reading approach an the grammar likes
grammar translation on written skills .
it experienced in achieving the direct approach .
It is a reaction to the reading approach. It emphasis the oral skills and need to training, this mean that it was an imitation more than learning, that is because it depends on structural linguistics.
in skinners book in 1957 it depend on mechanical repetition. his view that nature did not provide children with tools to learn, children acquired language ,they produce language that was apart of their experience, because they should hear be fore learn.his legacy to teachers was not in the field of teaching .
This theory is a successful because English pronunciation
depends on four skills the first and most important one is the skill of speaking than listening .
It has been realized that there never was and probably never will be a method for all, and the focus in recent years has been on the development of classroom tasks and activities which are consonant with what we know about second language acquisition, and which are also in keeping with the dynamics of the classroom itself.
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