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Internal & External Factors Affecting Inbound and Domestic Tourism
Transcript of Internal & External Factors Affecting Inbound and Domestic Tourism
Travel & Tourism Assignment
designed by Péter Puklus for Prezi
The UK has gone stricter over the past years with the health, safety and security legislation therefore tourists can expect to be safe whilst traveling to their desired destinations. This is because peoples behavior change when they're in a different destination they don't become aware what's in their surrounding and tend to be more relaxed, and these are the type of people who are prone to crime than those who know their surroundings and culture. This just doesn't apply to inbound tourists but also for domestic tourist, it may be in their country but it's still in a different environment from their own.
Health, Safety & Security
Another example is the London Riots in 2011, this has not only affected the London City itself , but this has hugely impacted the inbound tourists coming into the country. They created many disturbance such as stealing from shops, burning buildings and causing a lot of violence to police and the public. This led to tourists feeling scared on going to the country and also it affected domestic tourists as they felt close to the city and we're still hesitant on visiting London.
Availability of products and services
There have been an increase of availability of products and services when traveling to the UK such as; transport, accommodation, visitor attractions, events, guided tours and many more. However these changes due to seasonal effects like Christmas breaks, Summer breaks as the products and services may become more expensive and harder to find bookings whereas if it's off-peak seasons it gets cheaper and there is more availability.
This can affect the inbound and domestic tourists as their length of stay may decrease due to the full availability of hotel accommodation and they maybe asked to leave so therefore they wouldn't be happy and less likely to come back again.
The UK is one of the most accessible countries in the world; tourists can get into the UK via by air, boat or ferry, car through the channel tunnel or by train through the English tunnel. This is great for both inbound and domestic tourists, making it easier for them to get Britain and other destinations in the UK.
People have changed how they travel. When the IPS started in 1961, air travel was not much more
common than sea travel. However, factors such as the emergence of cheaper air fares and quicker
access to local airports have given rise to substantial increases in air travel. This contrasts with
visits completed by sea which have shown only limited growth since the 1980s. In 1980, 40 per
cent of visits to and from the UK were completed by sea but this share had fallen to 30 per cent by
1990 and is now less than 15 per cent
How Internal and External Factors
affect inbound and domestic tourism
Such as terrorist activity, like the London Underground bombings in 2005, has an effect on inbound tourists as they may become hesitant in visiting UK and it's main cities because people have lost confidence because of terrorist attacks, this additionally effects domestic tourists too because they will be as discouraged as the inbound tourists because they feel they would be more affected as they can be closer to the destinations that are prone to be terrorized.
Airports have increased their security measures such as X-rays on people and on their luggage ensuring that they don't bring anything illegal into a country, they've also introduced identity check as part of their new security measures this tells them that the passengers are who they say on their passport.
Taken from VisitBritain - there have been 'mixed' tourism figures for the month of August following the riots which hit many parts of London and other major cities. According to the international passenger survey (IPS) found that there were 3.1 million visitors to Britain, down by 2% on August 2010 and well below the record August 2006 which saw 3.7 million visits. Holiday visit to the UK visits from world regions were both down.
However there was an increase on visitor spending with 3% increase totaling in 2011 to £11.65bn
Terrorism attacks have affected the inbound and domestic tourists greatly as they're concerned about their safety when traveling to certain countries.
Transport services, especially in airports has made an impact on the UK tourism as there would be more tourists entering the country internationally and domestically and therefore there would be more flights coming in and out of the country. Taken from BBC NEWS in 2011 Aberdeen Airport had fastest passenger growth in 2011, statistics report shown that there was 9.5% growth for Aberdeen, followed by Edinburgh Airport with 6.5% growth and Manchester 6%
With the technology today there have been an impact on small and independent airlines as many people go on the internet to search for holiday bookings of their purpose visit whilst looking at reviews on destinations like TripAdvisor. This would effect most small businesses as many go on liquidity because not a lot of tourists will go and book with them which therefore the business value will decrease.
International tourists can easily access the UK with air routes from established airlines such as American Airlines, Emirates, Singapore and many more. For short-haul air routes are also available for near countries to the UK such as Italy, Spain, France etc which makes it easier for tourists to travel to the UK in any destination specific to their needs. This benefits inbound tourists as there are international air routes, also benefiting the domestic tourists as they can travel by low-cost airlines which allows them to save value of their money with great accessibility to their destination.
Sea routes have also made a benefit for inbound tourists because they can take ferries from near countries such as France and many more further countries allowing tourists for more accessibility to the UK.
Many tourists also have the option to take the Eurostar high-speed rail from France to London in such a quick time (2hr average) allowing tourists to visit London at any time.
This showed that the growth of more accessible air travel for the tourists all around the world along with cheaper fares (off-peak or low-cost airlines) has contributed to more overseas travel from inbound tourists and domestic tourists.
budget airlines/super planes
Source From Office for National Statistics - Travel Trends 2010 (figure 2)
There have been an increase of budget airlines and super planes which highly impacts the UK tourism as many tourists can fly directly to any destination without the hassle of many transportation.
According to independent.co.uk Easy Jet annual profits soared 51% today - November 2013, attracted more 60 million passengers board their aircraft for the first time. This significantly shows how popular budget airlines are to tourists especially inbound and domestic tourists, this will impact as people can save money therefore more will come to the country and increase the number of visitors and the frequency of visits, with low-cost flights they can now have more money to spend luxury goods whilst on holiday.
There have also been an increase of super planes for long-haul travel, however there are a lot more expensive but tourists (especially inbound and domestic) are willing to pay to fly to other international cities all around the world to experience culture and fashion, therefore this will effect the UK tourism as the number of tourist visits will rise and the airlines value of money will increase also allowing more expansion for super planes so there are more options for the tourists.
Taken from blog.idealo.co.uk a report from 2012, showed that the average price of a budget airline is £29 per seat, showing that families are looking to book a cheaper ticket if excluding extra services and charges. The most popular and UK's biggest airlines - Ryan Air and Easy jet dominate the low-cost carriers that are known to be notorious for excluding potentially expensive surcharges (travel bags), seat reservations and administrative fees. This encourages domestic and inbound tourists when visiting the UK because of the low-cost airline ticket which will then increase the number of visitor numbers in the UK.
Climate is one of the factors that determine tourists all around the world choosing to go to destinations, for example many british people like to escape their own country and travel to hotter places for holidays such as Spain, Tenerife. However other tourists also like the rain and the cold weather so they choose to visit England for a different climate change. This all depends on the tourist specific needs and where they come from as they may come to visit in specific seasons such as summer, spring or autumn. But many tourists visit for the culture and heritage of the country and what it offers to them (attractions) so if there are any climate issues such as floods ect. this can affect the travels of the tourists, they will become more hesitant in traveling if this occurs in the country.
The recent flooding in the South West of England has affected tourism in the UK, which led to inbound and domestic tourists decreased, canceled holidays and frequency visits may be impacted if flood occurs again which can affect on tourists coming back. The length of stay of tourists may also change if they're affected by the flood, however according to sky news - £2m flood funds are given to support tourism firms this will benefit tourists who are willing to visit certain places that have been affected with the flood ensuring that the tourists will get the needs they want when they visit again.
The UK have very unpredictable weather such as snow, rain,storm. Weather like this can affect inbound tourists when deciding in coming into the country due to safety in traveling especially in long-haul travels. Which therefore can decrease the number of visitors in the UK because of the misleading weather and climate, they could be disappointed when arriving in the UK if it claims to have 'sunny' weather but it's 'snowing and raining' however this depends on the tourists and how they deal with weather.
Emergence of new markets
Countries all over the world are growing fast and are interest in visiting the UK, taken from BBC - VisitBritain says that there will be a number of tourists visiting the UK from emerging nations such as Brazil, Russia, India and China are set to rise sharply. It's predicted that by 2014 visitor numbers from China alone would increase by almost 100,000 a 90% jump.
This overall will increase number of visitors entering the UK, emerging nations don't just come into the UK purely because of interest but also to experience life in the UK and experience new things they wont be able to do in their own country. This highly impacts inbound tourists as they're likely to be interested to visit UK because it's something different from their own country.
Economic recession in tourist generating regions
If recession occurs in travel and tourism this can affect tourists as well as the country, if inbound tourists decides to come to the UK when there is recession it will be a lot cheaper for them. However the country will be weak and there will be a rise in unemployment making it hard for domestic tourists to get money for traveling which lowers the visitor numbers of domestic tourists, therefore the UK will heavily rely on inbound tourists coming into UK despite the economy is low.
Exchange Rate -
Visit Britain is the main marketing campaign in Britain, every year they produce innovative and creative image campaigns and videos in promoting Britain all around the world.
Britain invest and spend a lot of money trying to interest inbound tourist coming over to Britain, they also do this for domestic tourists to encourage them to stay in their country rather than stay abroad.
According to gov.uk they fund £100 million Visit campaign by Visit Britain to encourage international tourism. The GREATBritain image campaign has already provided more than £22 million to Visit Britain. They estimate that both campaigns will bring 4.6 million extra visitors to Britain, £2.2 billion more spending in our economy and over 60,000 new jobs between 2011 and 2015.
The more marketing campaign a country does, the more chances in promoting their country to potential inbound and domestic tourists because tourists will be interested in seeing the country itself from the marketing images and videos the country produces.
Visit Britain Advertising Campaign 2011
Visit Britain & British Airways Advertising Campaign
There are many different ways of travel restrictions this can be security restrictions, custom and immigration restrictions, these travel restrictions greatly affect inbound tourists.
Security Restrictions such as :
Taking liquids through security there is only a certain amount each passenger is allowed to take with them, liquids larger than 100ml can't go through security however there are some exceptions. Baby food and milk passengers are allowed to take enough baby food and sterilized water however airport staff may need to screen liquids at the security point. Personal items, medicines and other medical items, electronic devices or other electronic items and many more may need to go through screening before able to bring whilst on travel. Taken from the gov.uk
Custom Restrictions have gone more strict over the past few years, this may be new to the tourists that haven't traveled before when security measures were introduced or for tourists who do not know about limits of bringing alcohol and tobacco they may be given a warning for the early stages but this can put tourists off when entering a country.
A video to show some of the security measures in the UK
Immigration restrictions have brought many new European inbound tourists to the UK because it means they can travel to the UK with having minimal restrictions than other tourists coming from different countries.
This is taken from VisitBritain,
according to VisitBritain the 'relative' growth in value on average over the last five years shows the rapid rise in importance of emerging markets China, UAE and Brazil.
This will benefit the UK because as more inbound and domestic tourists that the UK receive, the value of the UK tourism sector will rise. Meaning that there should be more money that can be spent on the tourism industry therefore tourists all around the world would be encouraged to come as the money will be spent to improve and develop areas of destinations that will highly interest many tourists.
This will benefit specifically the inbound tourists, as the tourists will get more for their e.g. Euros or Dollars, this will motivate them more in coming to the UK as the tourists will be getting more value for their money. Therefore they will be more happier to spend and are able to spend more in the UK which will also benefit the GDP of the UK. This will have little impact on domestic tourists as they would have just been spending the same amount anyway.
Taken from Travel Weekly 2013, UK tourism on recession will decrease the number of people traveling, there will be 5.9 million domestic tourists when the market counted on number of domestic trips. This means there will be a lack of visitors in certain destinations in the UK which will lower their visitor numbers which isn't good for the UK tourism
Availability of products and services
budget airlines/super planes