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Transcript of History
GUEST An individual who is a recipient of hospitality or accommodation, at an establishment other than their own home. History is concerned with the dimensions of time, attempts to understand social processes and institutions within this context. Fundamentally, history considers the transformation and development of things (people, places, institutions, ideas), through time, from one state into another” (Towner & Wall, 1991, p.72). Historical Theories Socio Cultural Evolutionism Darwinian Evolution The Great Man Theory Post Modernism Marxism 1.Recognition of a problem/ identification of a need for knowledge. 3.
If appropriate, the formation of hypothesis, which explains the relationships between factors. 4.
Collection and organising evidence (verifying the authenticity of the information and its sources). 6.
The recording of conclusions in a meaningful narrative. 5.
Analysing the evidence, and drawing conclusions. 1.
Recognition of a problem or identification of a need for knowledge. 2.
Gathering general information. Historical Method of Research 1. The Key Target Market
2. Changing Needs & Services
4. Communication Learning from the past helps to inform future decisions. The Key Target Market The Origin of Commercial Hospitality The Key Target Market Mesopotamia & Ancient Greece (2000BC) Code of Hammurabi:
laws governing commercial hospitality
Government hostels in Babylonia:
administrator, couriers and army personnel
Serve drinks, women and accommodations
One day food rations:
differed according to rank Roma Pompeii (79AD) Pompeii:
Roman Empire major center of commerce and entertainment
highly organised Caravanserais (700AD) Built by the governor of Egypt
Located along the Silk Routes
Commercial center for merchants Middle Ages to Renaissance Medieval Tourism (476AD-1453AD) Religious pilgrimages
Army & knights
Jerusalem, Rome & north-west Spain
Inns still not developed
Poor safety conditions Middle Ages to Renaissance Grand Tour (1500s-1600s) British aristocracy
Encouraged by Queen Elizabeth I
Essential component of a gentleman’s upbringing
Hostels develop more comprehensively
Wine cellar, kitchen, garden, dinning hall and ballroom Modern Era Industrial revolution
Leisure habit changed
Backpackers, young couples, families, etc.
Diverse hotels focus on guests from different budget, culture and ages Market Segmentation Specialization & Diversification
Satisfy upper-class traveller
Foresee the future hotel industry market development
Review from historical perspective Future Challenges Changing Needs and Services The Original Types of Hotel Guest in Early History Since the beginning of Roma Empire, people gradually travelled region to region for commerce, religion, family, health, immigration and education.
A long Journey took a long time. People felt tired, hungry
- Food & Beverage Consumptions
People found a shelter to take a rest.
- Accommodation The Challenges of Service in Early History Hard to find a place to settle down
- High occupancy/ bad service/ poor hygiene condition
The History from Bible
- Joseph & Mary Under the influence of the Industrial Revolution, most inns and hotels began catering to the hotel guests who always travelled for business purpose. In 1908, the first businesses hotel, Buffalo Statler, opened in Boston. "There was no room at the inn". Physical Surroundings &
Service Hardware (Facility) The variety of facility
(Business centre, convention, entertainment & fitness )
The layout of service facility
Bed comfort Future Challenge Selling these tangible elements in service is not enough! Customers want more. Exceed the hotel guests’ expectation in service needs Intangible Service To give real service you must add something which cannot be bought or measured with money. - Douglas Adams (1995) The sense of Luxury "Our service mission is to completely delight and satisfy the hotel guest." Technology The purposeful application of information in the design, production, and utilisation of goods and services, and in the organization of human activities. Technology Using historical discipline in technology area can help us to learn more about hotel guests. Check-in system Computerised front desk technology Entertainment & Facilities Security Radio frequency identification (RFID)
Door lock for keyless entry to a hotel room and other areas of the hotel Future Challenge Technology to rotate a hotel
(e.g. Dubai’s Rotating Tower)
Face recognition key locks
LCD screens connected to a digital camera
Customers privacy - the pressing priority Communication The essence of being human
& the vital property of life. The root of all events, daily interaction, social affairs and anything that requires the purpose of human dealings. Facilitation of the other developments in economic, social, political and cultural discipline. Writings on the paper, clay, wax, etc. Pictographs Information Communication Revolutions Information transferred through controlled waves and electronic signals. Communication between hotels & guests.... Bottom-up conversation online Customer to customer communication
- a gigantic word-of-mouth network Future Challenge The diversity of communication ways during the interaction of people from different cultural areas. Intercultural communication! History is an important discipline when considering the hotel guest. Target Market: Niche -> Masses Changes of Needs: Basic -> Advanced ( Basic+ Extra) Technology: Manual -> Computerised Communication: Word of mouth The learning from the past helps to inform future decisions. brings the amazing new experience for hotel guests. provides the agents with real-time information to facilitate efficiency and minimize wait time. Reference List Barghchi, M., Omar, D. B., & Aman, M. S. (2008). ServiceScapes in Hospitality Industry. Journal of Social Sciences, 5(4), 460-465.
BiblePlaces.com.uk(2006). No Room in the Inn. Retrieved from http://blog.bibleplaces.com/2006/12/in-typical-christmas-pageant-one-of.html Mandarinoriental.com.sg (2013).
Mandarin Service Mission. Retrieved from http://www.mandarinoriental.com/about-us/mission/Preuss, H. (2007).
The history of Hospitality Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism, 12(3), 207-228.
O'Gorman, Kevin D. (2009). Origins of the commercial hospitality industry: from the fanciful to factual. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(7), 777-790. doi: 10.1108/095961 10910985287
Holden, Andrew. (2005). Tourism Studies and the Social Science Andrew Holden (Ed.) Thank You.