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Copy of BTEC Sport Structure and Function of the Respiratory System
Transcript of Copy of BTEC Sport Structure and Function of the Respiratory System
Function of the Respiratory
Describe the Structure of the Respiratory System
Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide Pathway
Different Types of Lung Volume
Inspiration is where gas is drawn into the lungs. When we draw gas in the chest cavity moves up and out to allow more volume to be inhaled, this allows us to supply the body with more oxygen as we have more space to briefly store the gas. When we exercise our inspiration becomes more frequent, this is because our muscles have a greater need for oxygen and energy. During aerobic activity breathing will be quicker and heavier. Expiration is where gas is exhaled from our body, when we exhale the chest cavity moves down and in, the opposite of when we inhale. This forces he air out as it restricts the space for I so it must leave the body. During exercise it is exactly the same as inspiration, it gets heavier during exercise.
The main function of the respiratory system is to transport oxygen/air in to the lungs and diffuse oxygen into the red blood cells. Another Function of the respiratory system is to take waste carbon dioxide out of the body when the body has taken all the oxygen out of the air. We then breathes out the carbon dioxide in the same proses as taking the oxygen in but in a backwards process backwards.
All muscles, organs and the brain depend on the oxygen that is transported through the red blood cells, The oxygen gets in the red blood cells due to the respiratory system.
How Breathing is Controlled?
Inspiration and Expiration
Function of the Nasal Cavity, Epiglottis, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchus, Bronchioles, Pleaural Membrane, Alveoli, Diaphragm, Pleural Fluid and Pleural Cavity
The nasal cavity is the nose and is where the oxygen can be breathed in and carbon dioxide can be breathed out. The alternative to the nasal cavity is the mouth cavity.
The epiglottis is where the mucous membrane is and this helps filter the air being breathed in and stops dirt getting in the lungs. It has cartilage within it to allow for a little bit of stretch when inhaling and stopping it from collapsing when breathing out.
The pharynx splits off into the stomach and the lungs and it closes the stomach flap is air is being breathed in and closes the lung flap if food or drink is being consumed.
The larynx is the voice box of the throat and uses air to create sound and talk.
The trachea is the part of the respiratory that branches off into the 2 lungs.
The bronchi is the start of the lungs and is the tube that leads to the left and right lung.
The bronchioles are smaller than the bronchus and is the passageway leading to the alveoli.
The pleural membrane is the membrane that helps ubricate the outside of the lungs to stop them sticking together when being filled up and it stops the lungs sticking to the lung cavity.
The pleural cavity is the space between the lungs and the chest wall.
This is the cycle for when oxygen enters the body, Carbon Dioxide leaves the body going in the opposite cycle t which it came in. when the Oxygen entrs the body i has very high levels of oxygen, but on the way out it has very low levels with a bigger volume Carbon Dioxide.
The average total lung capacity is 6 litres of air and during relaxation the average person breathes in 8-12 litres of air per minute and during exercise this figure can rise to 150 litres for a normal person exercising and an elite athlete it can even rise to 240 litres of air pre minute. This shows the drastic increase in the volume of air breathed in to compensate for the amount of oxygen need in the bodya dn the amount of carbon dioxide that needs to be removed form the body.
Other factors contribute to the volume of the lungs not just the amount of exercise somebody does and these are a persons height, for example a taller person will have a larger lung volume than a smaller person, another factor that directly effects a persons lung volume is obesity as if somebody is obese then their lung volume will be lower than that of a person that isn't obese. Also smokers will have a lower lung volume that a person that doesn't smoke as tar fills the lungs decreasing the surface area of the alveoli and restricting the size of the bronchus and bronchioles and therefore lowering thye lung volume.
Vital capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled in when breath and an elite athlete will have a higher vital capacity than that of a normal adult. A normal adult has a vital capacity of 3-5 litres whereas an athlete could have a vital capacity of 6 litres which means the athletes lungs are fully functional to be able to breath in thye maximum volume of oxygen with each breath will ensure that they get the maximum amount of oxygen that they possibly can and therefore ensuring they are performing to the best of their ability.
Chemoreceptors are found in the medulla, aortic arch and the cartoid arteries. These chemoreceptors detect the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide and acid in the body and increase the breathing rate if too much carbon dioxide or acid is detected and the breathing rate is lowered if too much oxygen is detected.
It involves neurones, cells that conduct nerve impulses, in the reticular formation and pons, both parts of the brain stem. Neurones in two areas of the medulla are critical in respiration. these are the dorsal respiratory group (DRG) and the ventral respiratory group (VRG). The VRG is thought to be responsible for the rhythm generation.