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Personhood, Right and Justice

What is a Human?
by

Vanity Lugo

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Personhood, Right and Justice

What is a human being? Robert L. Yates Jr. stalked and killed more than 10 women who were prostitutes and drug addicts.
Would the police have funded the investigation more if the victims were not prostitutes?
Does being a prostitute/addict make someone less of a person? Is a prostitute a person? The Expansion of the Concept "Human" Some people view foreigners as morally less than human.
Tribes view other tribes as less than human
In wartime soldiers view their enemies as less than human in order to make it easier for them to kill their enemies. In this chapter the debate on what constitutes a person is being questioned. Many social thinkers fight for the concept "all persons deserve respect", but still this is not an idea that is universersally accepted (Rosenstand, 2009, p.312). In this prezi we will discuss the different views on what constitutes a person. Personhood, Rights, and Justice When trying to distinguish between what is considered a human or not, there are many ways to set a certain criteria. Setting a certain criteria for what a human is can be a difficult task to accomplish. What does it mean to be a human? According to Rosenstand, "the traditional answer is a featherless biped" or "a creature that walks upright on two legs but is not a bird" (Rosenstand, 2009, p.312). There are problems associated with this definition; there is no genetic criteria but there is a physical one. Genetics should play as one of the most important distinguishers. "Genetically, there are creatures that are 98 percent identical to humans" but we do not accept them as humans: chimpanzees.
But including a physical criteria can exclude humans who may not have all human characteristics.
Ex. Physical/ mental disabilities. Genetically versus Physically In 2000, the parents of six year old Molly Nash decided to have a baby boy who would play as a blood cell donor for Molly. They did this through a process called preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to select the prefect embryo. Molly Nash According to Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher genetic engineering deals with the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another (Steinbrecher, 1998, para. 3).
For years scientist have been using genetic engineering and discovered many new opportunities using it; so why is society so worried?
The answer is simply because society has not decided where to draw the line.
For example: Will babies be genetically engineered for personal liking? Genetic Engineering Therapeutic cloning involves making identical cells to insert them into organs or to re-grow them to improve a person's life.
Reproductive cloning is far more controversial due to the fact it deals with duplicating the entire body. While making these clones three things come into play: nature, nurture and situation awareness. Therapeutic and Reproductive Cloning To get the same individuals (clones) we have to create a completely identical environment to grow up in, while being genetically identical. Another factor is "situation awareness," if the clone finds out it is a clone will it want to live up to the original?
Because they are the same individuals will this qualify them as humans? Reproductive clones: Are they humans? Stem cell research holds great promises as a means of repairing and replacing damaged organs.
It involves general cells that are not yet specialized they have the capacity to become any organ with in the body, with the help of medical science. Stem cell research Harvesting and cloning stem cells from embryos, by taking the live of an embryo.
Largely connected with abortion.
But cells can only be taken for the Zygote stage.
In 2007, scientist announced they could take stem cells from skin tissue but it would have more limitations. Controversy Stem cell research is ultimately for curing illness and prolonging life through a process called Therapeutic cloning. Goals A human being can consist of many different things but there is no simple definition when defining humans. Conclusion In this chapter the debate on what constitutes a person is being questioned. Many social thinkers fight the for the concept "all persons deserve equal respect", but still today this is not an idea that is universally accepted (Rosenstand, 2009, p.312). In this prezi we will discuss the different views on what defines a person. Personhood, Rights, and Justice What is a human...? "Scientific research is supposed to be objective, and scientists are not to be swayed by personal ambitions and preference."
This is not always the case...
"There is an underlying suspicion that some scientific research is done strictly to see whether it can be done."
For example... "Just because it is possible for science to create dinosaurs, does it mean that science should do it?"
In addition, "Society will fund only those projects it deems valuable" Science is not value-free We think yes! Should we support a creation of ethical procedures to follow in the gray areas of decision making? Science should not be done for the sake of science alone.
Science should be conducted "in a value-neutral way"
"Scientists have subjected people to experimental medical procedures or have withheld treatment from them-without their knowledge or consent."
Examples include the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and "the forced sterilization of 7,500 people in Virginia based on the ideology of eugenics." Science is not value-free! Tuskegee Syphilis Study Scientists in Tuskegee, Alabama infected numerous poor, rural black men with the syphilis virus and left them untreated.
These men did not know they were being infected, they simply thought they were receiving free health care and a free meal.
The scientists knowingly did not treat the men for their disease, even though treatments were readily available... just for the "sake of science"
Is this justified? Common Exclusions In all reality.. Serial killers are people too! •When a child commits a crime it usually has to be extremely evil in order for the minor to be trialed as an adult.
•Childhood is often “considered a state of mind and body that doesn’t allow for logical consistency we assume is available, most of the times, to adults.”
The question is... Should the boys have been trialed as adults at the time of the initial murder? Children who kill cont'd Criminals are still considered "people."
Even convicted criminals still have the right to appeal, to humane treatment, and to freedom of speech.
We call criminals "animals" because they have not lived up to the expectations that we as people have, for what a person ought to be and do. Legally... "A person is someone who is capable of psychological and social interaction with others... capable of deciding on a course of action and being held responsible for that action."
Using the term "person" instead of "human" avoids association with human physical appearance. What is a person? Are they people too? Recognize these faces? •Children, as a collective group, have recently just been given the status of “people.”
•“Until recently, child abuse was not considered a felony.”
•Patria potestas, practiced by the Romans, gave the father figure the right to induce physical punishment on his whole family as he pleased, even to the point of death.
•As a society, we have agreed that children should be protected from abuse and their wishes and interests should be heard, however; we also have agreed that what children want is not necessarily what they need.
Although children are not always responsible.. they are still considered people. Should children be considered people? Should they be considered responsible for their actions? What about children who kill? Personhood implies that one has certain privileges and duties and that under extreme circumstances can be revoked.
When someone is abused, neglected or taken advantage of... Their personhood has been violated. What about personhood? During interrogation, Yates confessed that "he didn't consider the victims as any different than trash. He killed them and threw them away. The victims were 'just' prostitutes." According to Yates... yes! In the Western world we assume that all humans are persons with inalienable rights; however, this is not recognized around the world.
Slaves, women, children, criminals, terrorists and prisoners of war have all been excluded from the definition of a person.
Slaves were treated as property, not people.
Women were seen as not responsible, thus they did not have rights to property or to vote
Criminals are seen as "animals," not people. Common Exclusions Robert L. Yates Jr. stalked and killed over 10 women who were prostitutes and/or drug addicts.
Would the police have funded the investigation more if the victims were not hookers or addicts?
Does being a prostitute make you less of a person? Is a prostitute a person? When trying to distinguish between what is considered a human or not, there are many ways to set a certain criteria. According to Rosenstand, "the traditional answer is a featherless biped" or "a creature that walks up right on two legs but is not a bird". The problem with this definition is it does not set up a genetic criteria but instead follows a physical one. What does it mean to be a human? "Genetically, there are creatures that are 98 percent identical to humans" but we do not consider them to be humans although they meet the physical requirements.
Chimpanzees!
Will they meet the physical requirements not all humans do. So do we exclude disable people too? Genetics V. Physical In 2000, the parents of a six year old girl gave birth to a baby boy. This baby boy was different from others, he was conceived for a reason. Molly's brother was born to be a donor baby for Molly who was about to die. Doctors picked out the perfect embryo for Molly through Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Molly Nash Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
(PGD) Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis allows doctors to identify genetic diseases in an embryo before the pregnancy begins. However, this technique rises issues with genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is the alteration of an embryos genotype.
It has been used for years to create disease-resistant crops.
Genetic engineering has been proven to create many opportunities, so why is it such an issue?
The main reason is because society does not know where to draw the line. Genetic Engineering Stem cells are general cells that are not yet specialized; they have the ability to become any type of cell within the body, with the help of medical science. Stem cell research holds great promise with the means of repairing and replacing damaged organs. Stem cell research Most people who are against abortion are also against stem cell research. The reason why is because this process comes from the practice of storing and cloning stems cells from embryos. This is seen as taking their "life," even though they are taken from the zygote stage. Controversy on Stem Cell Research Stem cell research is for curing illnesses and prolonging life through the process of therapeutic cloning. The ultimate goal of stem cell research Therapeutic cloning involves making identical cells to insert them into organs or to re-grow them to improve a person's life.
Reproductive cloning is far more controversial due to the fact that it deals with duplicating the entire body to get the same individual . Therapeutic and Reproductive Cloning When creating clones three factors come into play: nature, nurture, and situation awareness.
To get the same individuals we have to create a completely identical environment for the clones to grow up in, while being genetically identical as well.
Another important factor is "situation awareness" if the clone finds out it is a clone will it want to live up to the original? Getting the same individual! There is no definition that would completely consider all characteristics involved with being a human. Conclusion! Citations... http://www.agirlsworld.com/rachel/beat-street/reviews/jurassicpark3.html (dinosaur picture)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_syphilis_experiment (tuskegee picture)
* Ted Bundy picture - http://nena-nikol.blogspot.com/2009/07/ted-bundy-30-100-theodore-robert-bundy.html
* Slaves - http://karandoni-racism.pbworks.com/w/page/9484163/slaves
* Diverse children picture - http://kidculture.wordpress.com/2011/05/20/self-esteem-respecting-others/
* Charlie Manson picture - http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/usa/pages-5/Charles-Manson-in-trouble-again-after-breaking-prison-cell-phone-rule-Scrape-TV-The-World-on-your-side.html
* John Wayne Gacy picture - http://blog.lib.umn.edu/meyer769/myblog/2011/11/the-secret-life-of-john-wayne-gacy.html * Jeffrey Dahmer picture - http://www.biography.com/people/jeffrey-dahmer-9264755
* Robert Yates Jr. picture - http://washingtonexaminer.com/article/500516
* Yates victim picture - http://www.mayhem.net/Crime/yates.html
* Terrorist picture - http://www.nowpublic.com/world/talibani-terrorists
* Bulger case murderers (10 yr old boys) - http://www.anorak.co.uk/240998/news/james-bulgers-killer-jon-venables-pictures-and-sickening-detail.html/
*Feather-less bird http://www.sodahead.com/living/feather-hair-extensions-cuter-on-people-or-pups/question-1832739/?page=3&link=ibaf&q=featherless%2Bbird&imgurl=http://vvoice.vo.llnwd.net/e14//2188231.40.jpg
*Human and chimp http://www.google.com/imgres?q=chimpanzee+and+humans&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1366&bih=623&tbm=isch&tbnid=btuT4MK6_lrA2M:&imgrefurl=http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm%3Fid%3Dwhat-makes-us-human&docid=GNvyvBnpImTQ6M&imgurl=http://www.scientificamerican.com/media/inline/what-makes-us-human_1.jpg&w=320&h=320&ei=wplsUPWIN8ni0gGdl4D4Dg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=2&sig=110096596618207289034&page=1&tbnh=135&tbnw=135&start=0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:76&tx=77&ty=111
*Molly Nash http://www.google.com/imgres?q=Molly+Nash&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-Address&rlz=1I7TSNP_enUS487&biw=1366&bih=623&tbm=isch&tbnid=nFhclHtSQn744M:&imgrefurl=http://home.honolulu.hawaii.edu/~pine/Phil100/preimplant.htm&docid=92FxVGdYMovS5M&imgurl=http://home.honolulu.hawaii.edu/~pine/Phil100/story_daughter.jpg&w=220&h=170&ei=N5psULSCEOyP0QG2m4GoCw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=51&sig=110096596618207289034&page=1&tbnh=123&tbnw=159&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:76&tx=99&ty=71
*Stem cell http://www.google.com/imgres?q=stem+cell&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-Address&rlz=1I7TSNP_enUS487&biw=1366&bih=623&tbm=isch&tbnid=1-9UVdJ6_XattM:&imgrefurl=http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2011/04/29/176999/stem-cells-win/&docid=nfA-JxeYkHglNM&imgurl=http://wonkroom.thinkprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/stem-cell-harvest.jpg&w=320&h=320&ei=65psUL7-EvGK0QGHq4D4Bg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=9&sig=110096596618207289034&page=1&tbnh=125&tbnw=124&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:154&tx=54&ty=42
*Human body
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=define+human&start=183&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1366&bih=623&tbm=isch&tbnid=Kcg-Zd2rBqDNpM:&imgrefurl=http://coveblueforjiyu.com/2012/03/11/snakes-and-bugs-define-the-human-phenotype/&docid=baUMNfhkCoWScM&imgurl=http://coveblueforjiyu.zippykidcdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/photogallery-human-body-00-full.jpg&w=300&h=400&ei=1ARtUO3_AvGN0QGOqoDIDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=495&vpy=220&dur=1302&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=104&ty=162&sig=110096596618207289034&page=8&tbnh=152&tbnw=114&ndsp=27&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:183,i:53
* Baby Clones http://www.google.com/imgres?q=clones&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1366&bih=623&tbm=isch&tbnid=ADr2NtZBadFInM:&imgrefurl=http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/apr/22/zavos-clones-human-embryo&docid=Az6yorjVMYQ5zM&imgurl=http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Technology/Pix/pictures/2008/04/23/Clones460x276.jpg&w=460&h=276&ei=ygNtUNLBN8y40QHl34DoAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=357&vpy=66&dur=3420&hovh=174&hovw=290&tx=136&ty=100&sig=110096596618207289034&page=1&tbnh=121&tbnw=161&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:145
In-text citations:
* PGD http://www.drmalpani.com/book/chapter26.html
* The Moral of the Story – Nina Rosenstand (pgs. 312-319)
Video links: Citations continue... Humans
Full transcript