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Natalie Miller

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of Biology

Reproduction Padua Wetlands
Animals And Plants Bibliography By Natalie Miller Swamp paperbark:
Species name- Melaleuca ericifolia Habitat Permanent wetlands Brackish Fresh Waterways Salty Waters Black Swan:
Species name - Cygnus atratus Range Adaptations Physiological Structural The Black Swan has from 22 to 25
vertebrae in its elongated neck that
allows it to duck its head under the
water to reach deep aquatic vegetation. The beak of the swan has
grooves that aid in the
feeding process because
they make grabbing food
much easier. The black swan has webbed feet which allows them to move
faster in water as well as take off from the water quicker. Black Swans moult once a year to grow new feathers
and get rid of old, worn, dead or damaged feathers.
This process allows them to shed broken feathers to
be able to fly safely. The black swan molts during the summer as a method to cool down due to high temperatures. What does it eat
and when? The Black Swan is a heterotroph that is an omnivore but prefers a vegetarian diet . They feed through the day with a diet that consists of algae and weeds. They may also eat small fish or insects. The bird gets its food by plunging their long neck into water up to 1 m deep. Occasionally these birds will graze on land
but they are not the best walkers. Black Swans may live in isolated pairs, small colonies or can be solitary. Black swans do not have any natural predators so they only form small group for company. Black Swans prefer to be active at night when it is cooler due to they migrate large distances. When migrating they may fly in a flock in a V shape. Black swans fly at night and rest and feed during the day with other swans. This behavioral activity is called migrating. Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae Genus: Cygnus Species: atratus Swan courtship and bonding begins the moment the baby swans are kicked out of the nest. The black swans will begin mating around 3 years of age. Generally speaking swans pair for life. The behavioral strategies a swan uses to attract a mate during breeding season is that they will stretch and twist their neck around their mate, dipping their neck into the water to attract them. Black swans
are most
common in
South Australia Black swans can survive anywhere in Australia as long as there is a supply of water. Black Swans preference for fresh water habitats with open water surrounded by dense vegetation.

Optimum Abiotic Factors:
- Water pH 6.5-8.0
- Water temperature 16' C
- Turbidity 0-10 NTU
- Air temperature15-22' C

Fellow organisms that share the same habitat are Feathers Webbed feet Long neck Beak When the black swan has babies though its active time changes to that of a humans (diurnal) with sleeping at night and being active and feeding during the day. Lifestyle Finding A Mate Habitat The swamp paperbark grows in an ecosystem of near-coastal wetlands in South-Eastern Australia. The plant grows in sandy loam soils an can exist in dry to waterlogged soils under low to moderate salinity.

Tolerance range of abiotic factors:
- Water pH 2.8-8.9
- low to moderate salinity
- Dissolved oxygen 5.3-10.5
- Water temperature 10-30

Fellow organisms that share the same habitat are: Range Adaptations Physiological Structural Physiological Structural structural The plant is resistant to fire with the outer bark being moist to reduce its ability to be ignited. This adaptation helps to protect the inner bark from the damaging heat of bush fires. The plant deposits silica in the cells as an attempt to deter termites from eating the plant. The swamp paperbark tree produces allelopathic chemicals that suppress seed germination. This reduces competing plants being able to grow around the tree. This results in the swamp paperbark tree being a successful invasive species. The needle-like leaves have a thick epidermis and a waxy coating called a cuticle. These adaptations help reduce dehydration, protect the plant from harsh weather conditions and fungi and bacterial invasions. The needle-like shape helps prevent loss of water vapor through leaves The swamp paperbark tree stores extremely large amounts of seeds and only releases them when the plant is under stress example from bush fires.

The release of the overwhelming amount of seeds causes predators to not have the ability to harvest all the seeds. This strategy ensures that at least some seeds will be spared and given the chance to grow. For the plant to live on it must reproduce by producing flowers. These flowers are then cross pollinated (pollen from one flower enters the ovule of another flower)or self-pollinated (pollen from the anther is transferred to the stigma on the same flower). After fertilization the ovule develops into a seed ready to find a new home and grow.

- A physiological adaptation the swamp paperbark uses is producing allelopathic chemicals that suppress seed germination. This reduces competing plants being able to grow around the tree giving the swamp paperbark seeds the best chance of life.

- A structural adaptation is the swamp paperbark ability to store extremely large amounts of seeds. The release of the overwhelming amount of seeds causes predators to not have the ability to harvest all the seeds. This strategy ensures that at least some seeds will be spared and given the chance to grow. 4 Other Organisms That Share The Same Ecosystem: 1) Honey bees (consumers) rely on the swamp paperbark as a food source for nectar and help the cross pollination process.

2) Termites (consumers) rely on the paperbark as a food source.

3) Hummingbirds (consumers) eat the nectar from the swamp paperbark flowers which also helps cross pollination.

4) Swamp rats (Omnivores) use the swamp paperbark tree as shelter from predators. - Swamp Paperbark. (4, 6, 11). Retrieved 9, 3, 13, from Victorian resources online : http://vro.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/water_sss_swamp_paperbark

- Evans, O. (27, 10, 11). Black Swan. Retrieved 2, 3, 13, from Australian museum : http://australianmuseum.net.au/Black-Swan/

- Mayntz, M. (-, - ,-). Black Swan . Retrieved 2, 3, 13, from About.com: http://birding.about.com/od/birdprofiles/p/Black-Swan.htm

- Robinson, R. (28, 8, 7). Swamp Paperbark. Retrieved 9, 3, 13, from Swamp paperbark : http://vuir.vu.edu.au/1469/1/robinson.pdf
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