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Ala Abd

on 5 November 2014

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Transcript of Chapter1-1

Main Computer components

- Central Processing Unit (CPU): controls and processes data.
- Main Memory (MM): stores programs and data.
- I/O modules (or subsystem): move data between the internal and external environment (peripheral units).
-System interconnection structure (System Bus): provides the Communication among CPU, main memory and I/O modules.

Main computer components
CPU structure
CPU structure
-Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): performs the computer's data processing functions, both arithmetic and logical operations.
- Registers: for temporary storage of data and instructions.
- Internal Interconnection Structure
- Control Unit (CU).

operation of the CPU
An ALU loads data from input registers. Then an external control unit tells the ALU what operation to perform on that data, and then the ALU stores its result into an output register. The control unit is responsible for moving the processed data between these registers, ALU and memory.
Von Neumann architecture
- Data and instructions are stored in a single read/write memory.
- The contents of this memory are addressable by location, without regard to what are stored there.
- Instructions are executed sequentially
Computer basic functions
1. Entering data through input devices

2. Data output through display or on paper

3. Data storage.

4. Processing information.
Computer types
Classifications according to function
1. General purpose computers
2. Special purpose computers
Classification according to size
1. Large computer systems
2. Small computer systems
General purpose computers
computers which theoretically can be used for any type of application like graphics, analysis, accounting, banking systems etc.
Special purpose computers
computers which are made and used for a specific task like a computer installed in automobiles to control fuel and braking systems.
Large computer system
Super Computers
They have two characteristics: automatically recovery from failure and they have multiple processors enabling them to parallel processing. They are widely used in scientific applications such as aerodynamic design and simulation, process of geological data, weather forecasting, nuclear physics, etc. Examples are CRAY- 1, Blue Gene.
Large computer system
Mainframe computers
usually slower, less powerful and expensive than super computers. A mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently rather than solving them quickly. They process several million jobs per second. They are usually used by large organizations like banks in financial transaction processing or in customer statistics. Example: System Z9 CMOS.
Large computer system
They are smaller than mainframes. They are not portable but easier to be moved than mainframes. They are well adapted for functions such as accounting, word processing, data base management, CAD, etc. They are multiprocessing systems capable of supporting up to 200 users simultaneously. Example: VAX computers. They're few now.
First generation Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-8 on display at the National Museum of American History
Small computer system
They are measured in terms of speed, internal memory and disk capacity. They are divided into four or five categories:
Microcomputers: They have smaller memory, less power and permit fewer peripherals than minicomputers. They are also called Personal Computers (PC). Like IBM's AT, Apple II. There are also other small portable computers like laptops, notebooks, hand-held computers and pen- based computers.

The Blue Gene/P supercomputer at Argonne National Lab runs over 250,000 processors using normal data center air conditioning, grouped in 72 racks/cabinets connected by a high-speed optical network.
Home works
1) Find a single computer that works like a "Special purpose computer"? Write a paragraph about it.

2) Which computer turned from "Special Purpose computer" in to "General Purpose computer" ? Detail your idea.
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