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Congress, Congress, and more Congress

United States Government Honors

Prezi Teacher

on 12 January 2015

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Transcript of Congress, Congress, and more Congress

"Lew" Sterling Jr.
Derrick Taylor
Jagan Williams

Congressional Membership:
The Congressional Sessions
Congressional Membership: The Members of the Senate
Congressional Membership:
The Members of the House
The House of Representatives:
Rules of Lawmaking

Fundamental Laws of Lawmaking
Each House prints their own rules biannually
Debates rarely last longer than one day
Without consulting, leaders may make key decisions
The "Left Democratic" and "Right Republican" sitting
Majority party select leaders of the body
More people in states means more votes
Equal votes take place at U.S. Senate
The House of Representatives:
House Leadership
House’s frontrunner must serve the resulting purposes:
The establishment and amalgamating of party members
The given preparation of the House’s work
Making sure that policymakers are present
The dispensing and the gathering of information
The House’s protection in touch with the president
Prompting representatives to support policies for parties
The House of Representatives:
Speaker, Majority Leader, and Whips
Speaker of the House
Helps appoint the members toward the committees
Helps with scheduling the bills into action
House Majority Leader
Assists with planning a party's legislative curricula
Make sure chairpersons to finish work on bills
Minority, Majority, and Deputy Whips
Inspect how majority members intend to bills
Inspects which party members are present to vote
The Senate:
The Senate Officers
Senate Officers
Vice President
Tries to influence senators by personal contact
President Pro Tempore
Presides in the nonappearance of the Vice President
Minority and Majority Leader
Minority: Help plan party's bills by/through the Senate
Majority: Progresses criticism of the majority party’s bills
Senate Majority and Minority Whips
Making sure legislators are current for votes
Constitutional Provisions:
The 4 Denied Powers of Congress
May not suspend the
writ of habeas corpus
Court orders to release an accused person
May not pass the
bills of attainder
Laws that establish guilt without allowing trials
May not pass
ex post facto laws
Laws that create legal crimes of acts
The Congress may not tax any exports
Development of Congressional Powers:
Non Legislative Powers
There are 6 common non legislative powers
House chooses a president from three candidates
Both houses of Congress confirms an appointment
House has the authority of an
Senate has power to approve presidential appointments
The Senate had power to ratify treaties
Amendments to the Constitution may be proposed
Congress at Work:
Helping Constituents
Handling Problems
Casework is helping out constituents with difficulties
Caseworkers handle the problems of the constituents
If the caseworkers can’t, the lawmaker can
What are some purposes of a Casework?
They help out lawmakers when getting reelected
Helps Congress oversee only the Executive Branch
Help the average citizen with the government
Congress at Work:
Influencing Congress
The Influence of Voters
How representatives keep track of citizens’ sentiments
Make common trips home to learn about concerns
Many of those concerns are done locally
Have staff members screen messages from home
Send the questionnaires to their own constituents
Hire professional pollsters to conduct surveys
Pay attention to campaign personnel and funders
"Lew" Sterling Jr.
Chapter 5:
The Organization of Congress
United States Government Honors
Period 1
December 15th, 2014

The Congressional Sessions
Each term of Congress starts January 3rd
Every terms that's Congressional is two sessions
Based on the Constitutional mandate that's assemble
Sessions last a year, which includes holidays
The Congress remains in session until adjourning
If Congress gets adjourned, then President "calls"
There are five different types of sessions
Regular, Closed, Joint,
"Lame Duck"
, and Special
The Membership and the Party Divisions
435 members representation based on the population
Each state must has at least 1 seat
There are only 3 different party divisions
There are a total of 234 Republicans
There are a total of 201 Democrats
Last, there are 0 Independents in House
Besides party divisions, there are 5 Delegates
Besides the delegates, there's only 1 Resident Commissioner
The Membership and the Party Divisions
There are a total 100 Senators
2 Senators for 50 U.S. States = 100 Senators
Party Divisions still occur in the Senate
There are a total of 53 Republicans
There are a total of 45 Democrats
Unlike the House, there are 2 Independents
In case of a tie, VP votes
Derrick Taylor

Chapter 6:
Development of Congressional Powers

The Power to both Tax and Spend
Allowing Congress to influence the national policy
Revenue bills are laws for raising money
Appropriation bills are laws to authorize spending
Helps expand its powers to regulate spending
Congress can
taxes to (dis)encourage products
Cutting individual the economy may increased spending
Development of Congressional Powers:
Legislative Powers
Development of Congressional Powers: Investigations and Oversight
Jagan Williams

Chapter 7:

Congress At Work

How a Bill Becomes a Law
Here is a video from Vox about how a bill becomes a bill and what Schoolhouse Rock did not reference.
Congress At Work:
How a Bill Becomes a Law
Types of Bills
Members of Congress introduce 2 different bills
Private Bills deal with people or places
Now, only a few bills are introduced
Involve claims against the government or immigration problems
Public Bills deal with general matters
Debated for months before they become law
30% of all bills actually get passed
Types of Resolutions
Congress may also pass 3 different resolutions
Simple Resolutions cover matters affecting one house
President does not have to sign it
Joint Resolutions are passed by both houses
This one does require the president's signature
Concurrent Resolutions require action from both houses
Also does not need the President's signature
Congress at Work:
Introducing a Bill
Committee Action
Bill is sent to the committee with subject matters
Committee Chairperson may send bill to subcommittees
: Committee may ignore it and let bill dies
Committee can kill bills by majority vote
Committee can recommend the bill be adopted
Can rewrite the bill before sending back
Sent to either the House or Senate
Staff and Support Agencies:
Congressional Staff Role
Congressional Staff Role
Communicate with voters and look for purposes
Help track committee hearings and floor sessions
Drafting new bills and writing committee reports
Attending committee meetings for recent current events
Write dialogs and bulletins for the congressmen
Assist with raising assets for election campaigns
Collaborate with lobbyists and guests from home
Next Stop: The Development of Congressional Powers
The Power to Investigate
A standing committee help with conducting investigations
Staff members collect info and schedule witnesses
Congressional investigations are not trails, but they
Issue subpoenas, which are orders
Require witnesses to testify under the oath
Punish the witnesses who refuse to testify
They can be arrested or even jailed
Staff and Support Agencies:
Congressional Committees
Types of Committees
Standing Committees
set up to oversee certain bills
are part of the standing committees
Usually continue from one congress to another
Select committees
mainly study a specific issue
Overlooked problems, interest groups, or public concern
Joint committees
may be temporary or permanent
Conference committees
usually come from standing committees
Development of Congressional Powers: Congress and the President
Cooperation and Conflict
President finds working with Congress is difficult
- Members of Congress represent specific voters
Check and Balances
- Powers to counteract
Party Politics
- Political differences affect relationship
- Congress can block legislation
President can approve, but Congress can block
Different Political Timetables
- President has more time
Development of Congressional Powers: The Struggle for Power
The National Emergency Act (NEA)
This was enacted on September 14th, 1976
President must inform Congress for certain intendancies
Mainly when declaring a state of emergency
Can not last more than a year
Unless if the president repeats the process
At least two constitutional rights are subjected
Of habeas corpus and to a Grand Jury
Development of Congressional Powers: The Struggle for Power
The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act (1974)
Establishing permanent budget committee in each house
Also did create a Congressional Budget Office
Limiting the president’s power to seize funds
President’s own refusal to spend any money
Even if Congress voted for a program
Requires that the funds must be spent
Unless the president actually request for it
Houses of Congress agree on "no spending".
Last Stop Until: The Congress at Work
Boyce, John R., and Diane P. Bischak. "The Role of Political Parties in the Organization of Congress." Oxford Journals | Law & Social Sciences | Jnl. of Law, Economics, and Organization. University of Calgary, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.

Images, G. (2014, November 10). Google.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014, from Google.com: www.google.com

Remy, R. C. (2008). United States Government Democracy In Action. Columbus: McGraw-Hill.

"The Organization of Congress." CliffsNotes. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2014.
Congress At Work:
How a Bill Becomes a Law
Congress at Work:
Taxing and Spending Money
Making Decisions About Taxes
Taxes: Money paid by people and businesses
Best way how government gets money
The House power over the revenue bills
All revenue bills start in the HOR
The House ways and means of Committee
Closed Rule stopped members from offering amendments
Critics and Senate Role in Tax Laws
Bischak, J. R. (2002). The Role of Political Parties in the Organization of Congress. The Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, 1-15.

"Committees of the U.S. Congress Congress.gov Library of Congress." Congress.gov. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2014.

Heitshusen, Valerie. "Committee Types and Roles." Washington Internships for Students of Engineering. Congressional Research Service, 11 Feb. 211. Web. 4 Dec. 2014.

Images, G. (2014, November 11). Google.com. Retrieved November 11, 2014, from Google.com: www.google.com

"Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives - Congressional Profile." Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2014.

Remy, R. C. (2008). United States Government Democracy In Action. Columbus: McGraw-Hill.

Trethan, Phaedra. "Congressional Sessions - U.S. Government Information." Congressional Sessions. US Gov Info, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2014.
"How a bill really becomes a law: What Schoolhouse Rock missed." YouTube. Vox, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2014.

Images, G. (2014, November 11). Google.com. Retrieved November 11, 2014, from Google.com: www.google.com

Remy, R. C. (2008). United States Government Democracy In Action. Columbus: McGraw-Hill.
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