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History of Music - Rameau, Scarlattis

Sacred Heart School
by

John Marino

on 31 March 2013

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Transcript of History of Music - Rameau, Scarlattis

Music in the Baroque Period What “period” lasted for 200 years before the Baroque “period”? Answer:
The Renaissance – 1400-1600 (The Re-Birth) What does "patronage" mean to you? Today, how do singers, musicians, conductors, and all other performers get paid for a performance? In other words, where do producers of these shows get the money? 1.Early Baroque (roughly 1580-1620)
Composer
-Monteverdi (Italian) 2.High Baroque (roughly 1620-1700)
Composers
-Purcell (English)
-Vivaldi (Italian) 3.Late Baroque
(ending around 1750)
Composers
-Bach (Germany)
-Handel (Germany) 3 Baroque Periods Cremona Early Baroque
Claudio Monteverdi
b. 1567 d. 1643 Basso Continuo:
is the BASS part accompanying the performer who is singing/playing the melody Monteverdi also transformed Opera more dramatically Cremona, Italy High Baroque
Henry Purcell
b. 1659 - d. 1695 Antonio
Vivaldi
b. 1678 - d. 1741 4. Eisenach Late Baroque
Johann Sebastien Bach
b. 1685 - d.1759 -Fugues
-Suites
-Sonatas
-Concertos
-Music for Organ
-Masses and Oratorios Many changes occurred during this time:

- Performances were constant and lively

- Music notation was published first time ever

- Huge collection of instruments were created
with exceptional beauty in their ornaments

- King Henry VIII had nearly 400 instruments by
1530

- Any person of high rank was expected to have
musical proficiency – most of them were good
sight-readers. Italy Madgrigal - Si dolce e il tormento Dido & Aeneas - "With Drooping Wings" Venice Bradenburg's Concerto No. 5 Who / what instrument(s) is playing the basso continuo here? Basso Continuo instruments played:
1. Harpsichord (like a piano, but plucked)
2. Viola da Gamba (like a cello)
*The melody - Tenor Recorder* London, England Venice, Italy Eisenach, Germany Handel - The Messiah's "Hallelujah" England Germany London Vivaldi's "Four Seasons" - Autumn Who is playing the Basso Continuo? Leonardo Da Vinci - The Last Supper (1495 - 98) Painter Music
Palestrina - Pope Marcellus Mass (1557) Naples An instrument in the Baroque Period was replaced by the Cello - What instrument is this?

Hint: it's an Italian name. A Baroque instrument that is now obsolete (outdated), the "Viola da Gamba" is similar to a Cello, with quieter, but also a rather husky sound.

These viols by the English maker Barak Norman (1670-1740) have elaborately carved "pegboards". Alessandro Scarlatti
b. 1660 d. 1725 Naples, Italy Napoli, Italia Alessandro Scarlatti was famous for his: - operas
- chamber cantatas
- church music
- Mass for chorus & orchestra - he influenced many later composers with his
Italian style operas His son, Domenico Scarlatti, also became an important composer in later years of the Baroque Period - we will talk about him later. The next piece you'll listen and watch is a famous aria from his 3rd opera -


Opera - IL Pompeo (1683)
Aria - Gia il sole dal Gange





Singer: Luciano Pavarotti The next piece is from A. Scarlatti's 26th and last opera, La Griselda.

This opera (at the time) had an all-male cast with 5 castrati & 1 tenor.


Opera: La Griselda (1721)

Aria: Mi rivedi, o selva ombrosa

"You see me again, oh shadowy woods" - At that time, women were not allowed to be
on stage due to the authorities of the Church

- For this reason, opera comprised of an all-
male cast, letting "the castrato" sing in place
of the female role IL Pompeo (1683) "Gia il sole dal Gange" GRISELDA: GRISELDA:

Mi rivedi, o selva ombrosa, You see me again, oh shadowy woods
Ma non più Regina e sposa No more queen and wife

Mi rivedi sventurata, you see me again an unfortunate,
Disprezzata pastrella. despised shepherdess.

È pur quello il patrio monte, Yet, those are the mountains
Questa è pur l'amica fonte, of my birth, this the friendly spring,

Questo è il prato e questo è il rio, this the meadow and this is the river,
E sol io non son più quella and only I am not the same. Viola da Gamba LA GRISELDA Eisenach Halle France Paris Scarlatti’s Works

Operas – 26

Keyboard Works – 45

Cantatas – 21

Motets – 11

Oratorios, Serenatas, Vespers, Magnificats, and Antiphons – 24

Madrigals – 5

Solo Vocal Works – 10

Chamber Works – 29

Concertos - 11 Dijon Dijon, France Jean-Philippe Rameau
b. 1683 d. 1764 Rameau was born in Dijon (1683), but after many efforts working as a successful composer, he moved to Paris in 1722 for good earning his reputation as a great composer. He first attracted attention as a theorist (science of music) and only afterward as a composer. Rameau was taught music before he could read or write.

He was educated at the Jesuit College, but he was not a good pupil and disrupted classes with his singing, later claiming that his passion for opera had begun at 12 years old. When he returned to Paris in 1722 for good, he published his most important work of music theory, Traité de l'harmonie
(Treatise on Harmony). RAMEAU - THE STUDENT Before Rameau, Jean-Baptiste Lully was by far the leading composer who changed the style of music with extravagance, producing music for opera and dances during the court of King Louis XIV. With Rameau’s emerging new style in music, nobility in France were confused by its originality and wealth of invention; others found Rameau's music as an attack on the French musical tradition - the "Lullist" tradition. However with time, Rameau proved his craftsmanship and innovative ways to compose a new style of music. Many of Rameau's instrumental music resembled Domenico Scarlatti’s musical style (we will learn later), which was pure virtuosity. The next piece you will listen and watch revealed Rameau’s
experiments of a theorist and a musical innovator
Harpsichord Suite - "Les Cyclopes" -1724 "Les Cyclopes" 1724 Jean-Baptiste Lully
(1632-1687) The next harpsichord piece is within a large piece called, "Pieces de clavecin en concert (1741)" - HARPSICHORD PIECES IN CONCERT. Here is the breakdown of the
"Pieces de clavecin en concert" 1741
Premier concert (First Concert in C minor)
1.La Coulicam
2.La Livri
3.Le Vézinet

Deuxième concert (Second Concert in G major)
1.La Laborde
2.La Boucon
3.L'agaçante
4.Premier menuet, Deuxième menuet

Troisième concert (Third Concert in A major)
1.La Lapoplinière
2.La timide
3.Premier tambourin, Deuxième tambourin

Quatrième concert (Fourth Concert in B flat major)
1.La pantomime
2.L'indiscrète
3.La Rameau

Cinquième concert (Fifth Concert in D minor)
1.La Forqueray
2.La Cupis
3.La Marais Listen for pure "virtuosity" "Pieces de clavecin en concert" 1741 Here, the harpsichord is not playing "basso continuo" to accompany other instruments that play the melody (the violin, flute or viol), but has an equal part in the "concert" with them. Thus, the harpsichord is NOT playing the "basso continuo". Listen for it!!

Unfortunately, not everyone at the time agreed with such a change, as it was out of the ordinary. ** Very Important Naples, Italy Domenico Scarlatti
b. 1685 d.1757 You're listening to his:
Harpsichord Sonata in D Major Domenico Scarlatti was born in Naples, the Kingdom of Naples, in 1685, the same year as Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel. Domenico Scarlatti was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families. Like his father Alessandro, Domenico composed many different genres such as operas, cantatas, symphonias, and liturgical pieces. Today, Domenico is known mainly for his 555 keyboard sonatas (originally intended for harpsichord or fortepiano). Alessandro First, what is a Fugue? a is a music technique using two or more voices, built on a theme that is introduced at the beginning and then "imitating" (repetition at different pitches) and recurs frequently in the course of the composition. FUGUE Very important Let's listen to Domenico's amusing
Harpsichord Sonata, the "Cat's Fugue" Harpsichord Sonata "Cat's Fugue" 1739 (La Fuga del Gatto). What is a Sonata (Baroque Period)? In the Baroque, the term "sonata" was applied to a variety of works for "solo instrument" such as keyboard or violin, and for "groups" of instruments. Alongside the Sonata da chiesa (sacred sonatas) and the Sonata da camera (for nobility - entertainment), the term "sonata" is also applied to the series of over 500 works for harpsichord solo, or sometimes for other keyboard instruments, by Domenico Scarlatti. THE SONATA * Very Important Keyboard Sonatas are frequently virtuosic and admired for their great variety and invention. What is a "keyboard" during the Baroque Period?


Clavichord
Harpsichord
Organ
Fortepiano – early version of piano Clavichord Fortepiano Keyboards: Harpsichord Baroque Organ Baroque Music with Alessandro Scarlatti, his son
Domenico Scarlatti, and Jean-Philippe Rameau This is just a portrait of young musicicans during the Baroque Period Domenico's father Farinelli (1705 - 1782) Caffarelli (1710 - 1783) Most Famous "Castrati" in the 18th century
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