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Referencing & Plagiarism

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Nadine Jeffers

on 21 November 2014

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Transcript of Referencing & Plagiarism

Referencing & Plagiarism
Introduction
What is plagiarism?
Examples
How do I know if I plagiarised?
What happens at VC if I am guilty of plagiarism?
What is Referencing?
Referencing is the
method
used to
give credit
to or to
acknowledge
the
author
of the ideas, words, images or concepts that you use in your academic writing.
In academic writing, referencing needs to appear in two places:
In your text (where you use it)
In your reference list or bibliography
Through the use of correct referencing, you can
avoid plagiarism!
When should I reference?
Each and every fact
that you write MUST be referenced according to the
Harvard method!
Even if it was said in class, you need to reference to either the Module guide, textbook or lecturer slides.
When don't I have to reference?
Why reference?
Avoid plagiarising
Right and ethical thing to do
Sound academic practice
Indication of academic integrity
Indicates your level of research
Enables others to access your sources
Bibliography VS Reference List
Turnitin Basics
NO assignment will be accepted without a Turnitin report (similarity index score to be less than 25%)

Your assignment MUST be printed with the highlighted Turnitin text report.
REMEMBER – Turnitin can take up to 24 hours to generate a report. Keep this in mind and submit your assignment in good time.

Waiting for a Turnitin report is NOT an excuse for late submission. NO exceptions WILL BE MADE.
Academic Writing Basics:

General
Font:
Times New Roman or Arial
Colour:
Paper – White,

Text - Black only
Font size:
12 (Headings size 14)
Line spacing:

1 ½ spacing
Alignment:
Left
Punctuation & spacing:
Single spacing after all punctuation in your reference list
Content:
Cover Page, Table of Contents, Main Essay/Questions, Reference List
Writing basics:
Cover Page
Full Name
Student Number
Program & Module
Lecturer Name
Date
Assignment Topic
Font:
Arial or Times New Roman
Size:
14
Alignment:
Centre
Format:
Bold
Writing basics:
Table of Contents
Font:
Arial or Times New Roman
Colour:
Black
Include:
Essay/Question headings
Numbering as per headings
Page numbers
Reference list
Writing basics:
Table of Contents
Watch these 7 Excellent videos on how to create and edit your Table of Contents in Microsoft Word by following this link:
http://bit.ly/1ap131v
Video 1: Funny but teaches about plagiarism. (Rodman, 2012)
Video 2: Create and customize a table of contents. (Microsoft. 2013)
Writing basics:
Essay/Questions
Numbering:
Use only numbers, not Q
Q2. Nature of thought as symbolic representation
= incorrect
2. Nature of thought as symbolic representation
= correct
Writing basics:
Paraphrasing
Have a look at these brilliant examples of paraphrasing taken from an article by Lasposita College (2013) to give you clear examples on how to paraphrase but at the same time avoid plagiarism. There are also good examples of summarising. Feel free to follow this link and to download your own copy for future use:
http://bit.ly/17DsVNw
Writing basics:
Reference List
Title: Reference List
Harvard Style
Minimum of 5 references
Alphabetical order
Open line in-between each reference
Left alignment with no indentation
Online sources – indicate date accessed
Full stop at the end
Writing basics:
Reference List
Alphabetical order
Writing basics:
Reference List
Open line in-between each reference
Writing basics:
Reference List
Left alignment with no indentation
Writing basics:
Reference List
Online sources:
Proper referencing & full URL address (no full stop after web address)
Indicate date accessed
Writing basics:
Reference List
Full stop at the end of each reference.
Referencing Recipe
Basic Ingredients -
Hard copy sources
Basic Ingredients -
Online sources
Basic Method:
Author, Initials.
Date published.
Title of book.
Edition/volume number.
Place of publication:
Publisher.
Author/Organisation Name.
Copyright date/last date site was updated.
Title of article.
[medium].
Available at: URL address
[Date of access].
Order

General layout

Punctuation

How to Reference –
Follow the recipe
Different recipes for each source (based on basic recipes)
Book with 1 author
Book with 2 authors
Book with 3 or more authors
Book with an editor
Chapter in a book – when chapters have different authors
IIE Manual
Secondary resources
Internet sources – with an author
Internet sources – with no author
Wiki
Online Journals
Pictures or Diagrams from websites
Pictures or Diagrams from books
Lecturer’s comments or notes
Interviews
Book with 1 author
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence starts
Surname of author
(Year of publication, page number)
in brackets with comma after year, then a space and a small p. with a full stop then no space before the page number
Sentence continues.
Entire sentence without a full stop, followed by
(Surname of author, year of publication, page number).
in brackets with a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket.
Book with 1 author
Reference List
Surname, Initials.
of author with comma after surname and full stop after initials.
Year of publication.
with full stop at end.
Title of book.
in italics with full stop at the end – no unnecessary capitalisation.
Edition.
Only if more than one edition with full stop at the end.
Place of publication:
with colon at the end:
Publisher’s name.
with full stop at the end.
Book with 2 authors
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence starts
Surname of author 1 and Surname of author 2
always type out the word and, don’t use the & sign
(Year of publication, page number)
in brackets with comma after year, then a space and a small p. with a full stop then no space before the page number
Entire sentence without a full stop,
followed by
(Surname of author 1 and Surname of author 2, year of publication, page number).
in brackets with the word ‘and’ typed out in full and a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket.
Book with 2 authors
Reference List
Surname of author 1, Initials. and Surname of author 2, Initials.
with comma after surnames and full stop after initials. Type out the word ‘and’
Year of publication.
with full stop at end.
Title of book.
in italics with full stop at the end – no unnecessary capitalisation.
Edition.
Only if more than one edition with full stop at the end.
Place of publication:
with colon at the end:
Publisher’s name.
with full stop at the end.
Book with 3 or more authors
First time you use the reference in your text:
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Second time you use the reference in your text and every time there after:
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence starts
Surname of author 1, Surname of author 2 and Surname of author 3
always type out the word and, don’t use the & sign
(Year of publication, page number)
in brackets with comma after year, then a space and a small p. with a full stop then no space before the page number
Sentence continues.
Entire sentence without a full stop,
followed by
(Surname of author 1, Surname of author 2 and Surname of author 3, year of publication, page number).
in brackets with the word ‘and’ typed out in full and a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket
Sentence starts
Surname of author 1 et al
only the surname of author 1 followed by the words ‘et al’ in italics
(Year of publication, page number)
in brackets with comma after year, then a space and a small p. with a full stop then no space before the page number
Sentence continues.
Entire sentence without a full stop,
followed by
(Surname of author 1 et al, year of publication, page number).
in brackets with the words ‘et al’ in italics then commas to separate the info and a full stop after the bracket
Book with 3 or more authors
Reference List
Surname of author 1, Initials, Surname of author 2, Initials and Surname of author 3, Initials.
with comma after all surnames, Comma after first initials, nothing after second initials and full stop after last initials. Type out the word ‘and’
Year of publication.
with full stop at end.
Title of book.
in italics with full stop at the end – no unnecessary capitalisation.
Edition.
Only if more than one edition with full stop at the end.
Place of publication:
with colon at the end:
Publisher’s name.
with full stop at the end.
Book with an editor
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence starts
Surname of editor(s)
Type out the word ‘and’ if applicable
(Year of publication, page number)
in brackets with comma after year, then a space and a small p. with a full stop then no space before the page number
Sentence continues.
Entire sentence without a full stop,
followed by
(Surname of editor(s), year of publication, page number).
in brackets with the word ‘and’ typed out in full if applicable and a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket.
Book with an editor
Reference List
Surname of Editor(s), Initials.
with comma after surnames and full stop after initials. Type out the word ‘and’ if applicable
Year of publication.
with full stop at end.
ed.
or
eds.
To indicate it is an editor and not an author followed by a full stop (ed. for one editor or eds. for more than one editor).
Title of book.
in italics with full stop at the end – no unnecessary capitalisation.
Place of publication:
with colon at the end:
Publisher’s name.
with full stop at the end.
Chapter in a book –
when chapters have different authors
In text referencing option 1:

In text referencing option 2:
Sentence starts
Surname of author
of the specific chapter
(Year of publication, page number)
in brackets with comma after year, then a space and a small p. with a full stop then no space before the page number
Sentence continues.
Entire sentence without a full stop,
followed by
(Surname of author of the specific chapter, year of publication, page number).
in brackets and a full stop after the bracket.
Chapter in a book –
when chapters have different authors
Reference List
Surname of Author, Initials.
with comma after surnames and full stop after initials.
Year of publication.
with full stop at end.
Name of chapter. Cited in:
Full stop after name of chapter and colon after ‘Cited in’:
Surname of Editor, Initials.
with comma after surname and full stop after initials.
ed.
or
eds.
To indicate that the book as a whole has an editor. followed by a full stop. Remember to use eds. if there are more than one editor.
Title of book.
in italics with full stop at the end – no unnecessary capitalisation.
Place of publication:
with colon at the end:
Publisher’s name,
with a comma at the end,
pp.
page numbers indicated with a double pp. then a full stop and actual page numbers with a full stop at the end.
IIE Manual
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence starts
IIE (Year of publication, page number)
in brackets with comma after year, then a space and a small p. with a full stop then no space before the page number
sentence continues.
with a full stop at the end
Entire sentence without a full stop
followed by
(IIE, Year of publication, page number).
in brackets with a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket.
IIE Manual
Reference List
IIE.
Followed by full stop.
Year of publication.
with full stop at end.
Program name.
Followed by full stop.
Module name.
in italics with full stop at the end.
The Independent Institute of Education:
Publishers name with colon at the end.
unpublished.
‘unpublished’ if no place of publication with full stop at the end. If there is a place of publication then use it instead of unpublished.
IIE Manual
Integrating two or more sources in one sentence or paragraph
Start with the oldest. If there are two published in the same year then start in alphabetical order.
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence starts
Surname of author 1 (Year of publication, page number) and
always type out the word and, don’t use the & sign
Surname of author 2 (Year of publication, page number)
Sentence continues.
Entire sentence
without a full stop, followed by
(Surname of author 1, year of publication, page number; Surname of author

2, year of publication, page number).
in brackets with a semi colon separating the information from the different sources and a full stop after the bracket.
More than two sources in one sentence or paragraph
Reference List
List these separately in your reference list according to the book referencing recipe.
Website/web article with author
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence
starts
Surname of author/editor
(Copyright date/last date site was updated)
in brackets
Sentence
continues.
Entire sentence
without a full stop, followed by
(Surname of author/editor, copyright date/last date site was updated).
in brackets with a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket.
Website/web article with author
Reference List
Surname, Initials.
of author/editor with full stop at end of initials
Copyright date/last date site was updated.
with full stop at end.
Title of article/blog/journal.
in italics with full stop at the end.
[Medium]
in square brackets e.g. [online]. with full stop at the end.
Available at: URL address
(copy and paste the full URL address – no full stop at end as this breaks the link, but leave a space before the next bracket)
[Accessed Day Month Year].
in square brackets with full stop after the bracket - this is the date you looked at it.
Website with no author /
organisation as author
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:

Sentence
starts
Name of organisation
(Not the web address!!!)
(Copyright date/last date site was updated)
in brackets
Sentence
continues.
Entire sentence
without a full stop followed by
(Name of organisation, copyright date/last date site was updated).
in brackets with a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket.
Reference List
Name of organisation.
(Not the web address!!!) with a full stop at end.
Copyright date/last date site was updated.
with full stop at end.
Title of article.
in italics with full stop at the end.
[Medium].
in square brackets e.g. [online]. with full stop at the end.
Available at: URL address
(copy and paste the full URL address – no full stop at end as this breaks the link but leave a space before the next bracket)
[Accessed Day Month Year].
in square brackets with full stop after the bracket (this is the date you looked at it).
Website with no author -
organisation as author
References
Apple. 2013. iPad mini. [online]. Available at: http://www.apple.com/za/ipad-mini/specs/ [Accessed 19 June 2013].

Berry, K. and Kingswell, S. 2012. An investigation of adult attachment and coping with exam-related stress. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, [e-journal] 4(4), Available through: Ebscohost database. [16 June 2013].

IIE. 2013. A guide to referencing, plagiarism and copyright. Revised edition. The Independent Institute of Education: unpublished.

IIE. 2013. Higher certificate in business principles and practice. PRAD5112 Project Administration Year 1. The Independent Institute of Education: unpublished.

iPad mini size and weight. 2013. [image online]. Available at: http://www.apple.com/za/ipad-mini/specs/ [Accessed 26 June 2013].

Jones, DM. 1995. Why people watch TV. [online]. Available at: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Students/dzj9401.html [Accessed 19 June 2013].

Lasposita College. 2013. Examples of using direct quotes, paraphrasing, and summarizing. [online]. Available at: http://www.laspositascollege.edu/library/documents/LPCplagiarism_examples.pdf [Accessed 26 June 2013].

Microsoft. 2013. Create and customize a table of contents. [video online]. Available at: http://office.microsoft.com/en-za/word-help/generate-and-update-a-table-of-contents-RZ102634105.aspx?CTT=1&client=1&section=2 [Accessed 2 July 2013].

Rodman, K. 2012. Funny but teaches about plagiarism [video online]. Available at: [Accessed 2 July 2007].

Wikipedia. 2013. Angelina Jolie. [online]. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelina_Jolie [Accessed 19 June 2013].
Wiki
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence
starts
Name of organisation
(Not the web address!!!)
(Copyright date/last date site was updated)
in brackets
Sentence
continues.
Entire sentence
without a full stop followed by
(Name of organisation, copyright date/last date site was updated).
in brackets with a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket.
Wiki
Reference List
Name of organisation.
(Not the web address!!!) with full stop at end.
Copyright date/last date site was updated.
with full stop at end.
Title of article.
in italics with full stop at the end.
[Medium].
in square brackets e.g. [online]. with full stop at the end.
Available at: URL address
(copy and paste the full URL address – no full stop at end as this breaks the link but leave a space before the next bracket)
[Accessed Day Month Year].
in square brackets with full stop after the bracket (this is the date you looked at it).
Online journals
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence
starts
Author
(Copyright date)
in brackets
Sentence
continues.
Entire sentence
without a full stop followed by
(Author, copyright date).
in brackets with a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket.
Online journals
Reference List
Author(s), Initials.
with comma after surname(s) and full stop after initials.
Year of publication.
with full stop at end.
Title of article.
with full stop at the end.
Name of Journal,
in italics with comma at the end.
[Medium]
in square brackets e.g. [e-journal]
Volume number(issue number),
in brackets with no space in-between, with a comma at the end,
Available through: database.
Name the database followed by the word database with full stop at the end.
[Accessed Day Month Year].
in square brackets with full stop after the bracket (this is the date you looked at it).
Pictures from websites
In text referencing:
Figure number:
followed by colon
Figure name.
followed by full stop.
(website name, copyright date)
in brackets with a comma separating the website name and the date - No full stop after the bracket!
Pictures from websites
Reference List
Figure name.
in italics followed by a full stop.
Copyright date.
with full stop at end.
[medium type].
e.g. [image online]. In square brackets with full stop at the end.
Name of Journal,
in italics with comma at the end.
Available at: URL
copy the full URL address and underline it – no full stop at the end but leave a space
[Accessed Day Month Year].
in square brackets with full stop after the bracket (this is the date you looked at it).
Diagrams from manuals
In text referencing:
Diagram number:
followed by colon:
Diagram name.
followed by full stop.
(Author, INITIALS. Year of publication, page number)
in brackets with a comma separating the information and no full stop at the end!
* Pictures, tables and diagrams are the only place where there are no full stops at the end!
Reference List
Diagrams from manuals
Author.
Info separated with comma followed by full stop at the end.
Year of publication.
with full stop at end.
Program name.
Followed by full stop.
Module name.
in italics with full stop at the end.
The Independent Institute of Education:
Publishers name with colon at the end.
Place of publication.
‘unpublished’ if no place of publication with full stop at the end. If there is a place of publication then use it instead of unpublished.
Lecturer’s notes & comments
Lecturers need to indicate/reference all their sources in their slides/notes.
If this is not visible, it is the student’s responsibility to source this info from the lecturer!

Students cannot just quote:

According to my lecturer…

or
according to Doe (2013)…

Lecturer notes are
usually from the text book or module guide,
confirm this with your lecturer if it is unclear.
Interviews
In text referencing option 1:
In text referencing option 2:
Sentence
starts
Interviewee Surname
(year of interview)
in brackets
Sentence continues.
with full stop at the end.
Entire sentence
without a full stop, followed by
(Interviewee Surname, year).
in brackets with a comma separating the info and a full stop after the bracket.
Interviews
Reference List
Interviewee surname, Initials.
With comma after the surname and full stop after the initials.
Job title.
with full stop at end.
Institution/company name.
with full stop at end.
Personal communication.
followed by a full stop.
Day month year of communication.
Followed by a full stop.
Referencing & Plagiarism
Sentence continues.
Full transcript