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Transcript of Greece
-Located in southern Europe, southern end of the Balkan Peninsula
Bulgaria, the republic of Macedonia, and Albania on the north
Ionian Sea on the west
Mediterranean Sea to the south
Aegean Sea and Turkey by the east
-Has considerable climate variation due to its latitude and longitude
-Has a large mainland (Peloponnese), 3000 islands, and 15000km of coastline
-80% mountainous, the Pindus lies across the center of the country in a northwest-southeast direction
-Area between Greece and Bulgaria = covered with vast and thick forests
-Plains found in Eastern Thessaly, central Macedonia, and Thrace
-Western Greece contains lakes and wetlands
Physical Aspects -3 climates:
Mediterranean Climate: mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers (snowfall occurs occasionally in Athens, Cyclades, and Crete during winter)
Alpine Climate: extremely cold due to high altitudes, summer temperatures range from -12 to 10 degrees Celsius, average precipitation is 30cm a year (primarily in Western Greece
Temperate Climate: cold, damp winters and hot, dry summers (primarily in Central and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace)
-Largest island of Greece
-Has an elongated shape, spanning 260km from east to west and 60km at its widest
-Area of 8,336 km², with a coastline of 1046 km
-Branches to the Sea of Crete (north), Libyan Sea (south), Myrtoan Sea (west), Karpathion Sea (east)
-About 160km south of the Greek mainland
-Climate is mainly temperate
-Can be humid depending on proximity to the sea, winter is fairly mild
-Snowfall is common on the mountains between November and May, but rare in the low lying areas
-Cretan summer, average temperatures reach the high 20s-low 30s Celsius
-South Coast falls in the North African climatic zone (more sunny days and high temperatures throughout the year)
Natural Hazards -Severe earthquakes
travelling through... Climate Economy Greek Economic Miracle -used to describe the impressive rate of economic and social development from the early 1950s to the mid-1970s
-average rate of economic growth of 7%, second to Japan during the same period
-Growth rates were highest during the 1950s, often exceeding 10%, close to those of a modern "tiger economy"
-Past: Greek’s economy deteriorated under the influence of Axis occupation, fierce fighting with Greek Resistance groups, and the civil war
-income per capita in purchasing power terms fell in comparative levels from 62% that of France in 1938 to about 40% in 1949
-Rapid Recovery was due to:
1)attraction of foreign investments
2)significant development of the Chemical industry
3)development of tourism and the services sector in general and
4)a massive construction activity connected with huge infrastructure projects and rebuilding in the Greek cities
-Economic growth after 1950 has consistently outperformed most European nations in terms of annual growth
Has made Greece an advanced economy, and today, Greek’s enjoy an income per capita close to the French and German partners
Greek Economic Today -Is a developed country with a very high standard of living
Ranked 25th in the world in 2007 for their high Human Development Index
22nd on The Economist’s 2005 worldwide quality of life index
-Main industries include: tourism, shipping, industrial products, food, tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal producing, mining, and petroleum
-In 2009, had EU’s second lowest Index of Economic Freedom
Suffered from high levels of political and economic corruption and low global competitiveness relative to its EU partners
-End of 2009, faced a severe budget deficit. This was due to:
international (financial crisis)
local (uncontrolled spending prior to the October 2009 national elections)
Labor Force -Labor force totals 4.9 million, second most industrious between OECD countries
-The Groningen Growth and Development Centre published a poll revealing that between 1995 and 2005, Greece was the country with the largest work/hour ratio among European nations; Greeks worked an average of 1,900 hours per year
Maritime Industry -Key element of Greek economic activity
-Accounts for 4.5% of GDP, employs about 160,000 people
Tourism -Greece is a famous country, popular for its clean beaches and its long history.
-There are hundreds of archaeological and historical sites to visit in Greece that gloriously depict the country’s past
-landscape is mainly mountainous and the terrain is not very fertile, except for some valleys.
-Greek islands form, one by one, a beauty of nature
Øideal for cosmopolitan or relaxing vacations
-Mykonos, with its cosmopolitan character
-Santorini, with the most romantic sunset in the world
-Rhodes, the island of the medieval castles, the sun and the butterflies
-Crete, with its revolutionary spirit
-sunny weather, warm beaches and variable landscapes during May to September
Fact File -Official name – Hellenic Republic
-Population – 10,722,816*
-Official Language – Greek
-Currency – Euro (EUR)
-Capital city – Athens
-GDP – purchasing power parity $327.6 billion*
-GDP Per Capita – purchasing power parity $30,600 *
Key Concepts & Values Family -The family is the basic social unit in Greek society closely followed by the village
-loyalty to family is paramount and put ahead of all business interests
- Interruptions such as phone calls at work caused by an individual’s family are common and not seen as disturbance
Personal Relationships -extremely important
-spend a lot of time socializing and they take a sincere interest
-successful business often depends on trust and personal relationships rather than qualifications and performance= investing time in getting to know your Greek colleagues and client is vital for successful business with them
Time -Greeks tend to be polychronic= means that they prefer to do many things at once
-Easily distracted and subject to numerous interruptions
-Plans are changed often and easily are not necessarily adhered to
Humour -Is frequently used in Greek conversations= however it may be perceived as rude and even vulgar since satirical jokes are common An Ancient Heritage -Greeks are proud of their cultural heritage and their contribution to world civilization
-A recent study found that Greek’s pride in being Greek surpassed the ethnic satisfaction of every other European nation
-Plays continue to be staged in the theatres where they were originally performed
-Greek literature includes poetry, drama, philosophy, history, as well as travelogues
Religion -The Greek orthodox church is the national religion and is practiced by the majority of the population
-Religion is integral to life in Greece and is evidenced in the respect for hierarchy and view of the family as a single unit of strength
-Most holidays and festivals are religious in nature
-Younger people are not as devout church-goers as their parents and grandparents, yet most will still turn to the church to observe such important rituals such as weddings and funerals
-Easter is the major religious holiday and the celebration is more important to most Greeks than Christmas
-The church plays a greater role in political, civic, and governmental affairs than in more secular countries
-the family is the basis of the social structure
-the family offers both financial and emotional support to its members
-the extended family is expected to help relatives in times of need, even to the point of assisting them to find employment
-family relationships carry over into business=nepotism is accepted
-the wrongdoing of one family member brings dishonor to the entire family
Meeting Ettiquette . Greeks are warm and hospitable.
. When meeting someone for the first time, they shake hands firmly, smile, and maintain direct eye contact.
. Good friends often embrace; they may also kiss each other on each cheek. Male friends often slap each other's arm at the shoulder.
Gift Giving . In general, Greeks exchange gifts with family and friends for 'namedays' (birth date of the saint after whom they are named) and Christmas.
. Some Greeks celebrate birthdays, but in general, celebrating namedays is more likely
. Gifts need not be expensive. Since gifts are generally reciprocated, giving something of great value could put a burden on the recipient since they would feel obligated to give you something of equivalent value.
. When invited to dinner at a Greek home, bring something small.
. A floral arrangement may be sent in advance of the actual event.
. Gifts should be wrapped.
. Gifts are usually opened when received.
If you are invited to a Greek home:
. Arriving 30 minutes late is considered punctual!
. Dress well. This demonstrates respect for your hosts.
. Offer to help the hostess with the preparation or clearing up after a meal is served. Your offer may not be accepted, but it will be appreciated.
. Expect to be treated like royalty!
. Compliment the house.
Table Manners . Remain standing until invited to sit down. You may be shown to a particular seat.
. Table manners are Continental -- the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the right while eating.
. The oldest person is generally served first.
. Do not begin eating until the hostess starts.
. Keep your elbows off the table and your hands above the table when eating.
. Accepting a second helping compliments the host.
. Expect a great deal of discussion. Meals are a time for socializing.
. It is considered polite to soak up gravy or sauce with a piece of bread.
. People often share food from their plate.
. Finish everything on your plate.
. Put your napkin next to your plate when you have finished eating.
. Indicate you have finished eating by laying your knife and fork parallel on your plate with the handles facing to the right.
. The host gives the first toast.
. An honoured guest should return the toast later in the meal.
. The most common toast is "to your health", which is "stinygiasou" in informal situations and "eis igían sas" at formal functions.
Social Institutions Major Institutions -the land within Greece is not very productive for farming
-some farming can include wheat, fruit, vegetables, olives and grapes
-some areas support goat and sheep ranching= fishing also continues to be an important industry
-the Greeks have struggled to build a strong economy
-the standard of living in Greece is lower than other European countries
-manufacturing is becoming one of the key industries
-tourism is also very important, particularly along the Aegean Sea Coast
Population and Culture -nearly all of the people in Greece are still Greek decent
-two thirds of the population lives in urban areas such as Athens
-their culture is still heavily influence by its ancient history
School •Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs
•Complete control over state schools
•Prescribe the curriculum, appoints staff and controls funding
•State-run schools and university provide free tuition and textbooks
•Private school under mandate of the Ministry
•Thee levels: namely primary, secondary, tertiary
•Kindergarten is 1 or 2 years
•Primary school from ages 6 – 12
•Two options for secondary: gymnasio or vocational training
•Tertiary is provided by universities, Polytechnics (A.E.I), Technological Educational Institutes (A.T.E.I.) and Academies. Health Care •free health care
•Consists of public hospitals, private for profit hospitals, and hospitals owned by social insurance funds
•Mixed health care system
•One of the best health care system in the world
•Availability is low
•Many in large cities
•social security contributions
•Although English is increasingly widely spoken, it would be dangerous to assume that all business acquaintances will be fluent in the language.
•English language levels vary widely — check on the language levels before meetings or conference calls. Much more emphasis is placed upon the spoken than the written word.
•Therefore, if you want a specific issue to be given serious consideration it is really important to speak to people about it — don’t just rely on email.
•Best of all are face-to-face meetings but if they are not practically possible then it is important to phone people.
•Emotion is not suppressed in business situations and discussions can appear heated and at time acrimonious to those from a culture which frowns upon any visible shows of emotion during business dealings.
•This outward show of emotion is seen as a positive and implies engagement and emphasis.
•The time to be worried is when your contact is quiet — not when they are boisterous.
•Parliamentary representative democratic republic
•Prime minister is head of government and multi party system
•Re-stored democratic system
•Dominated by liberal-conservative “New Democracy” and social democrative “Pan-Hellenic Socialist Movement”
•System described as “presidential parliamentary republic”
•Similar to Western democracies
•Compromise between French and German models
•Prime minster and cabinet plays central role in political process
•Resident performs some executive and legislative functions in addition to ceremonial duties
•Voting is option, not forced
•When vote is won, stays in parliament 5 years
•Maximum 2 years in office
Business Hours Offices Mondays to Fridays 09:00 - 17.00 (with an hour's break at midday).
Banks Mondays to Thursdays 08:30 - 14:00 (until 13:30 on Fridays)
Stores Mondays to Saturdays 09:00 - 18:00 Business Strategies If you want to conduct business in Greece, to ensure that it goes smoothly keep in mind these few tips/tricks:
Meeting & Greeting
- a simple handshake (a close business contact may even embrace or kiss you on both cheeks)
- wait for the other person to begin this move
a)- ‘no’ is bobbing of the head up and down
- ‘yes’ is the tilting of the head from side to side
b)- avoid any sort of discussion about politics
a)- since Greeks are laidback, meeting may be scheduled at a moment’s notice
b)-during May to October work is from Monday to Friday, 8am-1pm
- From October to May lunch hours are extended