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CRIME

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by

Jana Ba

on 28 September 2015

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Transcript of CRIME

FACTS AND FIGURES
THE ROLE OF THE BALTIC SEA TASK FORCE IN PREVENTING AND COMBATTING ORGANISED CRIME
A CASE EXAMPLE
Öresundregion as an example for Crossborder Crime
Transnational organised crime
in the Baltic Sea region

THE GOVERNANCE and PREVENTION OF CRIME

Several aspects of crime prevention:
Analysis of crime threats
Social and economic preventive measures (non-law enforcement)
Common law-enforcement actions and interventions between police, customs, and/or border control in the Region

→ Digitalisation and use of information and other technologies, e.g. the use of common information systems such as The Schengen Information System (SIS)
DISCUSSION
SOURCES
- United States Convention against transnational crime, 2004 New York (PDF doc)
- Transnational Organized Crime:
Principal Threats and U.S. Responses
March 20, 2006 (PDF doc)

- http://www.policija.lt/index.php?id=31248
- http://cbss.idynamic.lv/Civil-Security-and-the-Human-Dimension/civil-security-and-the-human-dimension
- http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/policy/cooperation/macro-regional-strategies/baltic-sea/events/#8 (particularly crime prevention workshop in Helsinki 2008)
- http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:l33020
- http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen-information-system/index_en.htm

- http://cbss.idynamic.lv/Civil-Security-and-the-Human-Dimension/task-force-on-organised-crime-in-the-baltic-sea-region
- Baltic Sea Task Force – Regional Strategy 2010-2014

EXTRA READINGS
Report on the Finnish Presidency of the Baltic Sea Region Border Control Cooperation:
http://www.bsrbcc.org/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Report_on_the_Finnish_Presidency.pdf

News from the Border Guard (figures, facts, ongoing and recent projects)
http://www.raja.fi/facts/news_from_the_border_guard

EU Agency Frontex
http://frontex.europa.eu/
https://www.youtube.com/user/FrontexEUAgency
http://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Publications/Risk_Analysis/Annual_Risk_Analysis_2015.pdf

Refugee crisis: Danish yachtswoman smuggles refugee on her boat from Copenhagen to Malmo
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/refugee-crisis-danish-yachtswoman-smuggles-refugee-on-her-boat-from-copenhagen-to-malmo-10492337.html
STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION
General definition
Facts and figures
The governance of crime
Role of the Baltic Sea task force
Case example
Discussion
Sources
Extra readings
GENERAL DEFINITION
- More than 1 can be accepted
- 1994: ”offenses whose inception, prevention and/or direct or indirect effects involve more than one country”
- Transnational crime vary a lot :
Structure
Strength
Size
Geographical range
Diversity of operations

2004, United Nation convention against Transnational organised crime in NY: new definition:

Transnational:
Involves more than one State
Involves one State + largest par of preparation in another State
Involves one State + a criminal group that organises criminal activities in other States
Involves one State but with substantial effects on other States


Organised Crime:
”Three or more persons , existing for a period of time acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offenses”

FIELDS OF ORGANISED CRIME
Money laundering
Corruption
Intellectual property crimes
Passport/ID forgery
Human trafficking
Smuggling drugs, cigarettes, narcotics, …


Cassandre Dutoit
Jana Brehovska
Virpi Pöntiö
Elisa Wang
Examples of organisations and action plans combatting crime in BSR
• Individual people, communities etc.
• Local NGOs (e.g. organisations helping human trafficking victims)
• Police forces, customs & border control (e.g. Interpol, Europol, Nordic co-operation, Schengen co-operation)
• Supranational organisations - Council of the Baltic Sea States as a major actor – particularly Baltic Sea Region Border Control Cooperation (BSRBCC) and Baltic Sea Task Force Organised Crime (BSTFOC)
• EU- and world-level actors (e.g. EU Agency Frontex and the UN)

Svenja Holste
Villo Maczo
Baltic Sea Task Force
Created 1996
11 representatives of the Heads of Governments of Baltic Sea States (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden)
Status of observers: officials from Interpol, Europol, EU Council, Secretariat of the council of Baltic Sea
Changing biannual chairmanship
Vision: „Baltic Sea Region shall become the safest region in the world“
Strategy in addition to other forms of cooperation:

BSTF as regional facilitator
platform: Identifying need for new projects
key factor: multidisciplinary approach
closer cooperation with Russia
”Five police chiefs from Baltic and Nordic countries meet in Lithuania for the first time.”
• What is succesfull co-operation?
• Why is meeting face to face such big news?
• What can e-mails and online meetings achieve, and what are they not so good for?
• Is it easier to look for solutions and to make compromises when you get to know the other parties more personally?
• What kind of cultural, political and societal obstacles might exist between the three Baltic states, between Nordic and Baltic states OR between Sweden and Finland?

Full article: http://www.policija.lt/index.php?id=31248
Öresund is an important growth region with large scale infrastructural and business investments

The North European countries because of they economic strength

The different laws and regulations between the two countries

Types of Crime
2. crime not necessarily involves crossing the border (autotheft)
1. cross border crime (smuggling, human trafficking)
Cross border crime, Human Trafficking
Noticeable increase in human trafficking, and illegal immigration all over the world

In Sweden and Denmark only since 2001 and the number of offences is slowly increasing.

Mostly women from other Baltic States smuggled to Denmark to be forced into prostitution

Other Offences
Cars, bicycles, narcotics

Parallel to that DUI`s also grow in number

Robberies in the region
Figure 4. Increasien narcotics (a) and car-related thefts (b) in Swedish Oresund in 2000.
Smuggling
Alcohol, Cigarettes, narcotics
High increase between 1998 and 2001
Table 4. Number of Goods seized by Customs in 1998 and 2001 (by type and total number of passengers and vehicles)
Full transcript