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Transcript of temperate rainforests
Brian Fernandez Temperate Rainforests Ten Characteristics
a mild coastal climate
heavy summer fog
very generous rainfall
the presence of sitka spruce
the presence of nurse logs
the presence of colonnades, (trees standing in a row as a result of starting on nurse logs)
trees standing on stilts
a profusion of lichens and mosses,
bigleaf maples with clubmoss draperies Adaptations:
Rain Forest Plants
•Temperate rain forests receive more than 100 inches of rain every year. So in the rain forest, plants must adapt to the moist environment. The trees grow bark that protects the inner core from cold temperature, while protecting the tree from parasitic fungi. Rain forests grow a startling variety of fungi on trees, rocks and the earth. These take the form of mushrooms, shelf fungi and ball fungi.
Rain Forest Animals:
•Like their cousins in the deciduous forest, temperate rain forest animals must spend much of the warm seasons preparing for winter. But because of the high rainfall, the animals must also grow thicker coats that protect them from the moisture. Larger mammals, such as deer, are smaller and have shorter antlers than deer in other biomes. This adaptation gives them the ability to move freely in the underbrush. Larger carnivores, such as wolves and wildcats, grow thicker pelts in the fall to protect the animals during the cold winter months.
Eight animals native to Temperature Rain Forests and their niche:
•Grizzly bear: The grizzly bear is at the top of its food we, mainly because it is an omnivore. They eat berries, by doing so they can spread seeds through their waste. The grizzly bear has rake like claws, which soften soil when they dig for roots
•Elk: Populations require seclusion from human interference, protection from poaching, and management to prevent local overpopulation. Proper management of forest and recreational activities can provide these requirements, and the mixture of habitats essential to health of the 3 subspecies. Humans, mountain lions, and coyotes are the major predators of elk, although a few, mostly young, probably are killed by black bears, bobcats, and feral dogs. Some competition for food and cover may occur between elk and domestic lifestock, wild horses, and deer. •Black bear: Black bears are the largest terrestrial species in the Order Carnivora in California. Adults have few predators other than humans. Trichinosis is common in bears. In years of poor mast production, compete with other mast-eaters such as wild pigs, mule deer, and squirrels. Can be pests, particularly at campsites, when they feed on human refuse and occasionally take stored foods. Sometimes damage and kill trees by scraping bark and feeding on cambium; occasionally damage orchards and beehives. Deer: White-tailed deer often live in mixed-forest areas, and feed on a variety of plant material. They do serve as a food source for some larger predators (bears, wolves, etc.), and as a result also benefit scavenger species that rely on carrion as a food source. Bald eagle: The bald eagles live by preying on slower, weaker, or injured members of its ecosystem. Raptors (predatory birds), bald eagles are at the top of the food chain and fish in both fresh and salt water. They feed on fish, small animals like ducks, coots, muskrats, turtles, rabbits, and snakes and carrion (dead animals) occasionally. Fish is 90% of their diet. •Raccoons: The niche of the raccoons is an omnivore. Raccoons are very adaptable, and tolerant of most human activity. May be pests when they prey on domestic animals, or consume cultivated fruits, vegetables, and other crops. Great horned owls, bobcats, and domestic dogs prey on raccoons. Diseases carried include trichinosis, rabies, leptospirosis, tularemia, and Chagas' disease •Bobcats: Great horned owls may kill young bobcats (Jackson 1961), and adults occasionally are taken by mountain lions (Young 1958) and domestic dogs. Bobcats and coyotes may compete (Robinson 1961), and when coyote numbers are reduced by predator control, bobcat numbers may increase (Nunley 1978). •Leopard: The leopards niche in the wild is a very complex yet simple role to understand. The leopard is a nocturnal predator which stalks its prey, with great agility and strength. The leopard, is not picky about its food, it will eat anything it finds even dead animals, or humans. The leopard will kill and stalk humans in small groups and eat them, seeing them as prey. The leopard will hunt during the day and at night, allowing it to kill numerous types of animals. The leopard is hunted by no creature, but hunts many carnivores still.
Food Chains: Location:
Temperate rainforests are found on the west coast of the United States from northern California to Alaska. Climate: The climate is caused by ocean currents, which bring in rain, fog, and clouds. Because the Olympic rainforests are close to the Pacific, coastal fog is very common in summer. It supplies the about 7-12 inches of rain each summer. The temperate rainforests has mild, wet winters and cool, foggy or cloudy summers.