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Weathering and Erosion
Transcript of Weathering and Erosion
Mechanical weathering breaks rock into small pieces, but it is still the same kind of rock.
Soil is made by weathering. Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, decaying organic matter, water, and air.
Parent material is the rock under the soil. It is usually the source of the weathered rock particles in the soil.
Weathering and Erosion
Chemical weathering changes the molecules in the rock. Water and acid (rain is often a little acidic) can do this.
The climate (rain, freezing/thawing) also affects soil formation. Soil is divided into horizons:
lots of organic material, very weathered particles, very dark
some roots and clay, some molecules from water seepage
mostly parent rock fragments
(parent rock below)
Erosion is when water, wind, glaciers, and gravity move weathered sediments to a different place. Deposition is the settling of eroded materials in the new location
Landforms can be created by erosion (usually tall and rocky landforms) and by deposition (usually flat or low lying)
Erosion by water:
The friction of ocean waves and streams cause erosion. As streams erode the land over time, they also change:
A young stream is very fast and steep.
A mature stream is slower and starts to develop curves.
An old stream is slow with large curves.
Water flowing underground can erode sediments (caves)
Flooding causes great erosion/deposition
Wind moves small sediments
Mass wasting, caused by gravity, moves large amounts of sediment, sometimes quickly (rockfall, landslide) and sometimes slowly (creep)
push/move sediments and deposit them when they melt. They make significant changes to Earth's surface.