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History and Approaches/ States of Consciousness
Transcript of History and Approaches/ States of Consciousness
States of Consciousness History and Approaches States of Consciousness Logic, Philosophy,
and History of Science Approaches Biological Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic Psychodynamic Socilcultural Evolutionary Psychologists agree that
interact with genetics in
order to determine your
personality. Psychologist Hans Eysenck
believes that genetics largely
determine personality. Studies of temperament, which are innate
personality features, heritabilty, or an
estimate that indicates how much a trait's
variation in a population can be attributed
to genes, these provide evidence of genetic
contributions to personality. The enviroment influences your relationship with others and your decisions. Even if you share living space and a
common life style with your family
doesn't mean you will share similarities
with your personalities. Behaviorism- Studying directly
and only the behavior of a subject or population. Shaping
classical conditioning Behavior uses
learning principles to
modify behavior. Behavior is based on
two assumptions, that
it is learned and that it
can be changed. Sleep and
Dreaming Hypnosis Psychoactive
Drug Effects Sleep is affected by biological rhythms
or periodic physiological changes. There are a total of three biological rhythms.
-Ultradian Rhythm Circadian rhythm - Biological rhythms that occur
about every 24 hours. Many of our vital functions
follw this rhythm. I.E. Heart pressure, body temp. etc. Infradian Rhythm - Thses are cycles that take longer than 24 hours. I.E. women's mensteural cycle. Ultradian Rhythm - There are cycles that occur more than once a day. sleep, alertness, and hormones levels follow this cycle. All of these rhythms can be affected by enviromental
factors such as light exposure. Theories of sleep You conserve energy Our ancestors developed sleep at night for protection Restores tissues that were depleted during the day. Sleep research Electroencephalographs (EEG)
Electrocardiographs (EKG) Sleep stages Stage 1 - Lasts a few minutes, heart rate body temperature and muscles relax. Also fantasies or images may start to float around. Stage 2 - lasts about twenty minutes, is known for short bursts of brain waves known as spindles. Stage 3 and 4 - Together they last about thirty minutes, mostly Delta waves, slow breathing and pulse rates, limp muscles and difficult to waken. REM sleep Occurs at the end of stage 4, begin to go through the stages of sleep backwards. When they reach stage 1 they go into REM. REM sleep is very similiar to when you are awake due to the same amount of brain activity. People typically go through four sleep cycles in a night. as the night goes on REM sleep gets longer as stages 3 and 4 get shorter. Sleeping Disorders Insomnia - a chronic problem off falling or saying asleep.
Narcolespsy - tenedncy to fall asleep periodically during the day.
Sleep Apnea - they stop breathing many times durng sleep gasping for air when they wake up. Chronic apnea can result in high blood pressure. Dreams are atill a mystery, no one knows exactly why we dream. Sigmund Freud believed that dreams were much of our unconscious thought. He also believeed each dream contained latent content and manifest content. Manifest content is the plot of the dream, who's in it, what heppens. Latnet content is the dreams hidden meaning. Activation synthesis theory: this means that nerves in the brain randomly fire during sleep. According to this theory dreams are nothing more than "brain sparks." Sleep Rhythms Hypnosis - An artificially induced trance state resembling sleep, characterized by heightened susceptibility to suggestion. When someone uses hypnosis to heal a person it some shape or form it is known as hypnotherapy. To hypnotise a person the hypnotist heavly instructs them and makes many suggstions to them. This is why hypnosis is also called a "state of heightened suggestibility." A psychoactive drug, is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. The immediate effects of these drugs vary from hallucinations and
euphoria to complete sedation and loss of felling pain. Common hypnotic drugs include; Ectasy, mescaline (certain dried cactus), salvia, some mushroom plants, codeine, and hashish. Drugs like aspirin and caffeine are also psychoactive drugs as they act directly on the nervous system. short term effects long term effects Sensitization and desensitization dull pain
slow or increase the nervous system
casue vivid hallucinations increased anxiety most are very addictive some can induce either brain disorders
like schizophrenia The reliability and truth of hypnosis is debated.
It can not be done with every person, and relies so much on suggesting to the patient.
many "hypnotists" have been caught faking hypnotism, adding more to the debate. Some researchers think that dreams are tool to help problem solve, like ennact scenarios of an important job interview, or offer clues to solve issues with a significant other. Lucid dreams - people are awhere they are dreaming but have no control of what is going on. The brain uses it's dreams to clean it's "files." Dreams The school of thought known as the humanistic theory explores the effects humans have on their own psychology. The use of therapy is a big part of the humanistic approach. It is used to help people help themselves, and over come incongruence, which is a disparity between their self-concept and reality. Incongruence is a result of an over dependence on the approval and acceptance of others. When someone has this congruence they tend to be more anxious and will distort reality to maintain their self-concept. Therapy Therapy is centered around the patient, they are actually not treated as a patient but rather as the client. They learn to to accept who they are and create a more realistic self-concept. Psychodynamic theories are based on Sigmund Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and emphasizes unconsious motives and importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality. Sigmund Freud believed people use
defense mechanisms from anxiety. Repression - Shutting out painful memories as though they never happened
Reaction Formation - behaving in the opposite that is expected of a bebehavior.
Projection - attributing one's thoughts unacceptable thoughts or fellings to someone else.
Rationalization - using false explantions to justify unacceptable thoughts or feelings.
Displacement - placing fellings about a person or event onto something else.
Denial - refusing to acknowledge something to obvious to others.
Regression - going back to a more pleasurable or immature state of mind.
Sublimation - channeling unacceptable thoughts into socially acceptable behavior. Evolutionary psychology tries to explain psychological traits like memory, perception, or language, as adaptations, because of natural selection or sexual selection. Charles Darwin was a firm believer in evolutionary theory. He believes that all traits and characteristics were formed by generations of evolution, fear caused people to run away from danger, sleep caused people to stay away from danger. In the theory of evoulution, all emotions and behviors are universal, which means we all show the same effects for fear, love and happiness. He also believed that we develop traits that help us discern
our own kids from other ones, and know how others are
feeling. This theory is used to explain how we live and why we
live the way we do. For example, how we react to a
death in the family and why we feel sad or depressed
about it. Social psychology is the study of the
relations between people and groups. The socio theory attempts to explain how
we react to others and what influence
they have upon us. Psychology Sociology Focuses on accurate lab expieremnts. Focuses on real world experiments. Focus on attitudes, social cognition
and social influence. Also looks at the
internal influences, how our own
thoughts, feelings, and actions affect what
we do. Works on the total effects of groups
and the masses of people. Important areas of study are influences
of race, age, gender, and social status. Psychologists in this field collect data
rom surveys and sampling of
specific roles and classes of people. Focuses on only those who have a direct influence in our actions, thoughts, or beliefs. René Descartes French philosopher and mathemetacian
"Our knowledge is innate - born within us."
"mind and body is seprable."
Believed that the mind moves on after death. John Locke British philosopher that rejected Descartes' theory of knowledge being innate.
Believed that our mind is like a "blank slate," that we pick things up as grow up. William Wundt Established the first laboratory for psychology in the University of Leipzig, Germany.
Since then this university has been considered the "mecca" of psychology.
Known as the father of psychology!
expiermented the lag between sensing a perception and pressing a button as soon as they sensed it.
Edward Bradford Titchener Introduced "structuralism."
worked with introspective, teaching people to look inward.
Studied how and why people feel and sense different perceptions.
Based hevily on those studied, could only use subjects who were intelligent.
His beliefs fell apart because each person had their own experiences and recalled different reasons for their feelings. William James Based his beliefs off of Charles Darwin's theories, that thinking is an adaptation made over generations, it allowed our ancestors to survive.
He used his functionalist ideas to explain our emotions, memories and habits.
Was the first American professor to give end-of-year student evalutaions of his own teachings.
Addmited the first woman into the university, (with resistance from the school's president), Margaret Floy.
Floy was the first woman ever to recieve a psychology Ph. D. Mary Whiton Calkins Admitted into Harvard, and tutored by William James.
Despite scoring higher than any other person in her class her degree was denied.
Later became the president for American Psychological's Associations, the first woman ever to do so.
Sigmund Freud Cognitive - The internal mental processes of thought such as visual processing, memory, thinking, learning, feeling, problem solving, and language. The actual term "cognitive psychology" was coined by Ulric Neisser by his book in 1965.
Cognition is all the processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used.
Cognitive psychology was first brought up by Descartes in the 17th century. Jean Piaget and William Wundt contributed most of their research to the cognitive approach. Piaget is especially known for his work with children. Cognitive is found in other sub fields of psychology, adding to many new theories of psychology. A pioneer in the field of psychoanalysis, Sigmund was a huge addition to the psychology we have today. Many of his ideas and theories were very controversial because they were almost all centered around sex and sexist based. Sigmund was a neurologist who tried to explain the structure of the human mind, such as human attributes, behavior, mental illness and origins of civilization. Ivan Pavlov Best known for his work on the conditioned reflex. Stumbled on the reflex on his expieriment with salivating dogs. He later won the nobel prize for his research and discoveries. Stanley Milgram He worked on controversial studies of obediance to authority. His studies found that subjects were so obediant to authority that they would cause physical harm and suffering to others. His ethics were questioned because he made his subjects believe they were actually inflicting pain onto other people. B. F. Skinner Worked off of Pavlov's studies to develop operant behavior. Most of his studies done with pigeons in a very controlled enviroment, which is now named after him, the Skinner Box. Surprisingly he even used his own daughter to study his ideas! Carl Rogers had been an important figure in humanistic ideas.