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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Case Study


on 15 May 2013

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The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as the following: "Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle." (ISO 14040: 1997) LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT PROBLEM: SITUATION: ANALYSIS (LCA) Majority of large manufacturing
base within Newark does not utilize LCA
There exists an abundance of excess material from manufacturing processes
Much of this material has inherent value that is not being optimized The various cores utilized by Avitex & Ameri-tex are not highly desirable to be recycled on a regular basis.
The companies do not output a consistent volume to generate enough for a waste recycler, nor do they have the storage capacity, or desire, to aggregate the spent cores
The maximum annual "waste" volume is not able to be determined and therefore greatest impact assessment is inconclusive.
Assumption was disproven as it has been determined that direct reuse is not the most economically & environmentally effective option OBJECTIVE: DEFINITION: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be employed with the aim of finding the most ecological way to improve product manufacturing. * * http://www.quantis-intl.com/life_cycle_assessment.php Our objective is to seek out opportunities where manufacturing processes, energy flows and production lines yield objects that are valuable yet being discarded. Our intent is to conduct an analysis of given objects and how their lifecycle can be extended by keeping them within the "technosphere" via direct reuse, upcycling (ie. repurposing or reimagining), or downcycling (ie. recycling) instead of being thrown away. DELIVERABLES: Diego Andrade
Andrew Saada AD 490 - LCA for Designers
Prof John Cays, Spring 2013 How
do these
tread? http://www.afandpa.org/docs/default-source/default-document-library/printing-and-writing-lca-report.pdf?sfvrsn=0 CONTEXT: MADE IN NEWARK —
Newark manufacturers GOAL
& scope inventory improvement assessment impact
assessment Robert Pender of Caraustar:

“It can be a closed process, however, the reality is that the economics of freight costs do not always warrant the return of the used tubes back to a recycler, and so the products may end up in the waste stream.” Recycling and Materials Management
Reducing the amount of waste we produce and diverting
remaining waste for productive reuse in the local economy
saves resources, reduces the pollution and greenhouse gas
associated with traditional waste disposal methods, and spurs
the creation of new jobs and businesses as materials are made
into new products.
• Develop and implement a Newark Zero Waste Strategy
• Double city-wide municipal recycling rate from 2010 levels
• Develop strategies for waste reduction and increased
recycling at commercial and institutional facilities
• Expand waste reduction and diversion for food and organics
• Develop and implement a Construction and Demolition
Waste Recycling Ordinance
• Develop and implement an Electronics Recycling program
• Grow and attract green businesses that upcycle materials
(re-use materials by taking them out of the waste stream
and making them into new ‘Made In Newark’ products) http://www.shutterstock.com/gallery-202930p1.html Ameri-Tex Inc. and Avitex Co. Inc. are two textile manufacturers that discard their textile paperboard cores as trash as the tubes become empty.
A carting company, Roselle, takes the building's garbage to the Essex County Resource Recovery Facility, owned and operated by Covanta Energy, where it is incinerated.
THUS the lifecycle of these cores is cut short and all the embodied energy is lost. ...reached out to various

found textile
companies that
TEXTILE TUBES Kassandra Braun of Jimtex Yarns:

"The tubes we buy cost almost nothing on an individual basis since we buy them in large quantities Sonoco packages them efficiently for shipment. Having to sort them would add several cents to the cost of each tube,
and would therefore be completely out of the question." Establish a relationship with the companies in order to best provide a solution. The spent cores are usually in near perfect condition—THUS making them prime candidates for direct reuse (ideally)—and are recyclable (i.e. repulpable in an appropriate process). FOSTERING RELATIONSHIP: CHALLENGES: CIRCUMSTANCES: Analyzing the embodied energy and figuring out a way to collect this "waste" and extend its lifecycle. EMBODIED ENERGY: ASSUMPTION:
Direct reuse of materials is usually best from an environmental & economic standpoint | LCA methodology INFORMATION
Ameri-tex yields approximately 2600 lbs of paperboard (minus the weight of the adhesive) per year.

Recycling the minimum amount of this paper “waste” generated by these companies would:
Save enough energy to power the average American home for 7.5 months.
Save 9,100 gallons of water.
Save 4.3 cubic yards of landfill space.
Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 1.3 metric tons of carbon equivalent (MTCE).
Paper recycling is 40% more efficient than manufacture from virgin materials

The minimum yearly embodied energy of output is 54.99 GJ! WASTE QUOTA 1 1 http://www.epa.gov/wastes/conserve/materials/paper/basics/index.htm 2 2 http://www.tappi.org/paperu/all_about_paper/earth_answers/recycle10.htm A kraft pulp mill uses resources such as wood, water, chemicals and energy in the form of electricity and heat. A kraft pulp mill can also produce bio-based energy in the form of steam and electricity for external use. The pulp mill creates pollution in the form of air emissions, water discharges, solid waste, noise and odor. 3 http://www.mraconsulting.com.au/Reports/Recycling%20and%20Climate%20Change%20Mitigation.pdf Virgin Embodied Energy (GJ/tn) = 42.3
(Recycled Embodied Energy (GJ/tn) = 28.2) http://www.mraconsulting.com.au/Reports/Recycling%20and%20Climate%20Change%20Mitigation.pdf 3 CHANGING HABITS Engaging company employees to change their habits of throwing away cores. COLLECTION SYSTEM Develop an ongoing method of collection to nourish the above INDUSTRY FINDINGS CONCLUSION Avitex & Ameri-tex have agreed to collect cores on a weekly basis to be picked up by ourselves.
The optimal use for the cores to remain within the technosphere is to utilize them as components for designed products, keeping their state intact as much as possible. TEXTILE TUBES Incinerator Direct Reuse
[textile spooling] Repurposing
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