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Transcript of Moving North
employers divided jobs into smaller steps. Each worker specialized in one step and became an expert in it.
entrepreneurs built factories to bring specialized workers together, and this allowed the product to move quickly from one worker to the next.
workers used machines to complete tasks. Th machines worked much faster than any human could.
Transportation in the North
The advancements in transportation improved greatly in the North. Canals were mostly in the North. The Erie Canal was a huge success. Most of the railroads were in the North than in the South. By 1850, 30,000 miles of track was laid. Canals and railroads allowed northern businesses to grow.
Samuel Morse developed Morse Code. He send coded messages instantly along electrical wires. Congress gave him money to test the decide over a wider area. Morse strung wires between Washington D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland. On May 4, 1844, it was a success. He sent out the words "What hath God wrought" in which the operator in Maryland sent the same message back. This telegraph allowed information to be communicated in minutes rather than days. People could quickly learn about news and events from other areas of the United States. The telegraph also allowed businesses to become more efficient with production and shipping.
By: Daniela Mazzoni
- Between 1800 and 1850, crews built thousands of miles of roads and canals.
- In 1807, Robert Fulton launched his first steamboat. They carried goods and passengers more cheaply and quickly along inland waterways than flat boats or sail-powered vessels did.
- By 1860, about 3,000 steamboats traveled the country’s major rivers and canals. The new clipper ships could sail 3000 miles per day, which usually cut that time in half.
-The first railroads ran along short stretches of track that connected mines with nearby rivers.
- Peter Cooper designed and built the first American steam-powered locomotive.
- In 1840, the US had 3,000 miles of railroad track.
- By 1860, the nation’s track totaled about 31,000 miles mostly in the North and Midwest.
There was a huge increase of population in the North during this time period. Since factories were increasing, many immigrants chose to head North instead of South.
Conditions for Factory Workers
Working conditions worsened as the factory system developed. Employes worked long hours. By 1840, the average workday was 11.4 hours. Employees often worked under harsh conditions. In the summer, factories were hot and stifling. The machines gave off heat and thee was no such thing as air-condition at that time. No laws existed to control working conditions or protect workers. Children in dangerous factories ofthen worked six days a week. Many years passed before child labor regulations became law.
African Americans in the North
Slavery largely disappeared by the 830s still prejudice and discrimination remained. Rhode Island and Pennsylvania passed laws to keep African Americans from voting. Most communities in the North did not allowed African Americans to attend public schools. Man communities also kept them from using other public services. African Americans often had to attend poor-quality schools and go to hospitals that were reserved for only them. A few African Americans found success. Most African americans still lived in poverty in the mid- 1800s
Samuel Cornish and John B. Russwurm founded Freedom's Journal, the first African American newspaper in 1827.
Women in the South
Women faced discrimination in the workplace. Employers often paid women half as much as men. Men kept women from joining unions and wanted them kept out of the workplace. In the 18302 and 1840s, some female workers tried to organize. Sarah G. Bagley, a weaver from Massachusetts, founded the Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization. Her group petitions for a 10 hour- workday. Movements like this paved the way for later movements to kep working women.
Robert Fulton:Steam Engine
Peter Cooper: Designed Railroad
Macon B. Allen became the first African American licensed to practice law in the United States
Judge Macon Bolling Allen
Sarah G. Bagley
Today, women follow in Sarah G. Bagley and are fighting for their rights as women.
Short video on how Morse Code was invented