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Ch. 10: Sexual Reproduction & Genetics

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Benjamin Fisher

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of Ch. 10: Sexual Reproduction & Genetics

Ch. 10: Sexual Reproduction & Genetics
Mendelian Genetics
Students must be able to:

Explain the
reduction in chromosome number
that occurs during meiosis
Recognize and summarize the
stages of meiosis
.
Analyze the importance of meiosis in providing
genetic variation
.
Explain the significance of
Mendel’s experiments
to the study of genetics.
Summarize the
law of segregation
and
law of independent assortment
.
Predict the possible offspring from a cross using a
Punnett square
.
Summarize how the process of meiosis produces
genetic recombination
.
Explain how
gene linkage
can be used to create
chromosome maps
.
Analyze why
polyploidy
is important to the field of agriculture.
Meiosis
Gene Linkage & Polyploidy
Chromosomes & Chromosome Number:
What's the difference between meiosis & mitosis?
Haploid & Diploid Cells:
Importance of Meiosis:
Mendel & The Gene Idea
Hybrid Crosses & Punnett Squares
Mendel's Laws
Genetic Recombination
Gene Linkage:
results in exception to law of independent assortment
Linked genes don't segregate independently
Chromosome maps show sequence of genes
Polyploidy:

three or more
chromosome sets
Example: octoploid (8n)
1/3 of flowering plants
Increased vigor/size

Humans: 46 chromosomes (each parent contributes 23)
Homologous chromosomes:
one of two paired chromosomes (one from each parent)
Haploid:
cell with n chromosomes (i.e.
gametes
have 23)

Diploid:
cell with 2n chromosomes (i.e. 46)
Produces gametes
Provides genetic variation
Crossing over during Prophase I
Random combinations
Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction?
Mendel cross-pollinated pea plants
Studied passing of several traits (
heredity
):
Seed or pea color
Flower color
Seed shape/texture
Stem length
Allele
: alternative form of a gene
Dominant/Recessive
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Phenotype: visible trait (Tallness)
Genotype: allele pairs (Tt)
Law of Segregation
: two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis

Law of Independent Assortment
: random distribution of alleles occurs during gamete formation
Now that I have your attention...
Monohybrid cross:

crossing a single trait
Dihybrid cross:

crossing 2 or more traits
(both are heterozygous)
New combination of genes
result from:
crossing over

independent assortment
(calculated by 2 )
n
1. After meiosis, a cell with 12 chromosomes will have:
a. 4 chromosomes
b. 6 chromosomes
c. 12 chromosomes
d. 24 chromosomes

2. Meiosis involves ___________ cell division(s).
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 0

3. Crossing over occurs during
a. Prophase I
b. Prophase II
c. Metaphase II
d. Telophase I

4. Meiosis is important because it results in:
a. Two identical daughter cells
b. One cell division
c. Diploid cells
d. Genetic variation

5. A ____________ cell has half the number of chromosomes (n)
a. Synapse
b. Tetrad
c. Haploid
d. Diploid


6. A _______________ allele masks a ____________ allele.
a. Dominant, recessive
b. Recessive, dominant
c. Dominant, co-dominant
d. Recessive, pleiotropic

7. _____________________ studied pea plants and contributed knowledge to genetics/heredity.
a. Robert Hooke
b. Thomas Hunt Morgan
c. Watson & Crick
d. Gregory Mendel

8. ____________________ states that two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis.
a. The Law of Segregation
b. The Law of Independent Assortment
c. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
d. Genetic Recombination

9. A cross of Tt x TT will produce:
a. TT, TT, Tt, Tt
b. Tt, Tt, Tt, Tt
c. TT, Tt, Tt, Tt
d. tt, TT, Tt, Tt

10. _____________________ states a random distribution of alleles occur during gamete formation.
a. The Law of Segregation
b. The Law of Independent Assortment
c. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
d. Genetic Recombination
???
???
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1. After meiosis, a cell with 12 chromosomes will have:
a. 4 chromosomes
b. 6 chromosomes
c. 12 chromosomes
d. 24 chromosomes

2. Meiosis involves ___________ cell division(s).
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 0

3. Crossing over occurs during
a. Prophase I
b. Prophase II
c. Metaphase II
d. Telophase I

4. Meiosis is important because it results in:
a. Two identical daughter cells
b. One cell division
c. Diploid cells
d. Genetic variation

5. A ____________ cell has half the number of chromosomes (n)
a. Synapse
b. Tetrad
c. Haploid
d. Diploid


6. A _______________ allele masks a ____________ allele.
a. Dominant, recessive
b. Recessive, dominant
c. Dominant, co-dominant
d. Recessive, pleiotropic

7. _____________________ studied pea plants and contributed knowledge to genetics/heredity.
a. Robert Hooke
b. Thomas Hunt Morgan
c. Watson & Crick
d. Gregory Mendel

8. ____________________ states that two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis.
a. The Law of Segregation
b. The Law of Independent Assortment
c. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
d. Genetic Recombination

9. A cross of Tt x TT will produce:
a. TT, TT, Tt, Tt
b. Tt, Tt, Tt, Tt
c. TT, Tt, Tt, Tt
d. tt, TT, Tt, Tt

10. _____________________ states a random distribution of alleles occur during gamete formation.
a. The Law of Segregation
b. The Law of Independent Assortment
c. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
d. Genetic Recombination
A More Comical View of Meiosis
Please begin your GradeCam!
*The closer the genes are, the more likely that they will stay together during crossing over
Full transcript