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Transcript of Fishing
Basic Facts & Ideas
Early 1500s, Europeans came in Canada for rich fishing
Most valuable commercial fishing, contributing $2 billion a year to national GDP of Canada
World ranked 8th largest exporter for fish/seafood
Fishing provides over 80,000 direct jobs for canadians (Economic Mainstay)
Crisis in The East Coast Fishery
West Coast Fishery
Advanced fishing technology
Uncontrolled foreign fishing
Destructive fishing practices
Increase in seal population
Most of the catch is salmon
Even though salmon can be caught on both coasts, West Coasts catch is ~400x larger
Crisis in the West Coast Fishery
Challenges to the West Coast Fishery
Three competing demands for salmon in British Columbia:
The demand for salmon increases because Aboriginals were granted the right to fish for their own food and for social and ceremonial purposes in 1990. The Court established that this is more important then all other considerations other than conservation.
Many First Nations land claims in British Columbia have the right to fish commercially.
Commercial Fishers are to reduce their catch because the First Nations and Sport Fishing Industries are demanding greater share of salmon.
the government is purchasing commercial fishing licenses and fishing boats so the number of commercial fishers decreases.
Changes in the Environment
Lack of Salmon fishing treaty
Canada's Contribution to these problem...
East Coast Fishery
- East coast waters have been a rich fishing grounds, mainly for its two reasons.
The combination of Warm and the Cold currents - Labrador and Gulf Of Stream.
Canada joined the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization in order to fight from overfishing. (NAFO) (quotas and legalities, certain enforcements)
In 1976, the Canadian government extended its marine jurisdiction to 200 nautical miles. (pushed the foreign factory ships off prime fishing grounds)
More than 630 fishery officers and 108 habitat officers are working across Canada. (making harvesters comply with rules and regulations. )
Inshore vs. Offshore Fishing
on a boat without going too far into the sea. It is done where water level that is about 30 meters deep.
- It is simple fishing without too much equipments.
- More affordable than offshore fishing.
It is more like a deep sea fishing.
- It requires considerable experience and skills.
Canada should consult with the scientists and try to decide a fixed maximum number of fishing per year. (create fishing laws to maintain its sustainability)
Minimize the use of technology
Seal hunting should be continued, but should have a fixed number of how many. (there will be a balance between fishes and seals)
Destructive Fishing Practices are a major cause of fish depletion.
Canadian government should ban the use of fishing trawlers
The supply of salmon is decreasing, however the demand for this fish is increasing. In the 1980s and early 1990s, the commercial fishing industry caught 94% of the salmon while the other 2 industries each caught approximately 3%.
Canada is the leading exporter because Canadians do not consume much fish
This industry wanted a bigger share of the available salmon
Recreational anglers that catch salmon have a much bigger benefit than salmon caught by commercial fishing boats
Lutzenberger, Tom. "Uncontrolled Fishing in Canada." EHow. Demand Media, 14 Mar. 2010. Web. 06 May 2014. <http://www.ehow.com/about_6076860_uncontrolled-fishing-canada.html#ixzz30fitUcKp>.
"Inshore versus Offshore Fishing." Local Inshore Fishing versus Offshore Fishing | Blue Fin IV | Montauk, NY. N.p., 2011. Web. 06 May 2014. <http://www.bluefiniv.com/insore_and_offshore_fishing.html>.
"Canadian Fishing Industry." N.p., Mar. 2011. Web. 6 May 2014. <http://www.apcfnc.ca/en/fisheries/resources/Aboriginal%20Fisheries%20in%20Canada%20-%20Overview%20-Canadian%20Market%20Trends%20-%20David%20Millette.pdf>.
Overfishing- Overfishing occurs when fish and other marine species are caught faster than they can reproduce. It is the result of growing demand for seafood around the world, combined with poor management of fisheries and the development of new, more effective fishing techniques.
The catch allowed by the federal government of Canada which is the reason of the major problem.
ADVANCED FISHING TECHNOLOGIES
Many powerful engine driven trawlers were developed after world war 2. They include SONAR, LIDAR( light detection and ranging), VPR(video plankton recorders), which have made fishing very easy and convenient for fishers. These satellite navigation systems locate schools of fish faster and more accurately.
UNCONTROLLED FOREIGN FISHING
Each fishing craft that sailed to the Grand Banks, regardless of nationality, wanted to maximize its catch and make every voyage as profitable as possible. Countries such as Spain, Poland, Great Britain, Soviet Union and Cuba over fished on the banks of Eastern Canada and broke laws. At this level the cod were not able to renew their numbers and the available cod began to decline so that by 1975 the annual catch had declined to 300,000 tonnes.
The number of seals have grown since the end of the seal hunt. The population of seals consumes too many cod fishes which is a big threat on fishing.
DESTRUCTIVE FISHING TECHNOLOGIES
Trawlers or large nets drag the fishes from the bottom floor of seas and oceans along them. The net indiscriminately catches all the marine animals and those which are not required by the fishermen are thrown back in the oceans but meanwhile many die in the process.