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House vs. Senate
Transcript of House vs. Senate
25+ years old
American citizen for 7+ years
at least 30 years old
American citizen for 9+ years
Members of Congress...
must be residents of the states from which they are elected
mostly come from previous occupations with high status/substantial incomes and consist of higher proportion of millionaires/near-millionairs
cannot claim descriptive representation, but engage in substantive representation - representing the interests of groups, rather than mirroring their constituents' personal, political relevant characteristics.
initiate all revenue bills
pass articles of impeachment
more centralized, more hierarchial, and less anarchic
stronger party loyalty
House Rules committee
ratify all treaties
confirm important presidential nominations
try impeached officials
less disciplined, less centralized, and more equal in powers
filibuster & cloture
Speaker of the House
majority leader (whips)
minority leader (whips)
Congressional leaders in both houses are usually not strong enough to move their fellow congressmen/women because both houses are highly decentralized in party unity.
Leaders are elected by their party members and must remain responsive to them or else, they will not recieve support from them - "Majority Pleader"
However, in recent years, there have been more effective congressional party leadership (at least in the House) with more centralized power & vigorous legislative leadership.
President Pro Tempore
Most of the real work of Congress goes to committees; committees "dominate" congressional policymaking in all the stages in both houses.
They mostly control the congressional agenda and guide legislation from its introduction to when it goes to the president for approval.
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