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Unit 6 - Human Reproductive System

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Sean Kasak

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Transcript of Unit 6 - Human Reproductive System

Unit 6 - Human Reproductive System
Hinsdale Central Health Education
The Reproductive System
Why do we have a reproductive system?
Our reproductive system creates hormones that regulate our growth and development

Hormones
are your body's
chemical messengers
that are created by glands in our endocrine system. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work slowly, over time, and affect many different processes, including:

Growth and development
Metabolism
Sexual function
Reproduction
Mood
Why do we have a reproductive system?
Create sex cells for use in reproduction
Male sex cell – Sperm
Female sex cell – ova (egg)
A thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive system
Semen
The male sex hormone
Testosterone
Male sex cells
Sperm
The two main functions of the male reproductive system are to produce and store sperm and transfer them to the female’s body during sexual intercourse.

Hormones produced in the pituitary gland stimulate the production of testosterone, which initiates physical changes that signal maturity.
Male Reproductive System
Up first –
The Male Reproductive System
Why do we have a reproductive system?
Create a new life from sexual intercourse
Males should watch for the signs of reproductive system problems, as well as signs of infections from STDs.
The organs of the male reproductive system can be affected by both functional and structural problems.
Male Reproductive System Problems
An external skin sac
Scrotum
Two glands that secrete testosterone and produce sperm
Testes
A tube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk of the body just above the testes
Penis
A male’s external reproductive organs include the testes, the penis, and the scrotum.
The penis is composed of spongy tissue that contains many blood vessels, and can harden and become erect when it is engorged with blood. This is known as an erection.
When the penis becomes erect, semen can be ejected from the body.
The testes are located in the scrotum.
External Reproductive Organs
The inability to reproduce
Sterility
Sterility occurs as a result of too few sperm or sperm of poor quality.
The male reproductive system includes both external and internal organs that, with the help of hormones, allow physically mature males to produce children.
Testicular Cancer
Cancer of the testes glands
For women in the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of death, after lung cancer.

The American Cancer Society recommends that females examine their breasts once a month, right after the menstrual period, when breasts are not tender.

 Early detection is critical for successful treatment of breast cancer.
Breast Self-Exam
The fertilization of an egg by a sperm occurs in the fallopian tubes and produces a cell called a zygote.
 
When the zygote leaves the fallopian tube, it enters the uterus and attaches itself to the uterine wall. The fetus remains in the uterus until birth.
Female Reproductive Organs
Up next –
The Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system matures at puberty and enables women to reproduce.

The organs of the female reproductive system enable pregnancy to occur with the first monthly ovulation.
The shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium)
Menstruation
After a female matures, the uterus prepares each month for possible pregnancy. If pregnancy doesn’t occur, menstruation occurs.
Menstrual Cycle
The process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each month
Ovulation
LETS PLAY SWATTO!!!!
The female sex glands that store the ova, or eggs, and produce female sex hormones
Ovaries
Female gametes
Ova (Eggs)
The female reproductive system has several functions, including producing female sex hormones and storing the ova (eggs).

A female at birth has more than immature ova in her ovaries, which are located on each side of the uterus.

The process of ovulation is controlled by the release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland.
Female Reproductive Organs
An infection from toxins produced serious bacterial (staph) infection that historically has been associated with the use of superabsorbent tampons.
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) has a wide variety of symptoms, including mood swings, tender breasts, food cravings, fatigue, irritability and depression. An estimated 3 of every 4 menstruating women experience some form of premenstrual syndrome.
Premenstrual Syndrome
Cramps that occur at the beginning of a menstrual period that are caused by the uterus contracting to help expel its lining
Menstrual Cramps
Female Reproductive System Problems
Infertility in females can have several causes.
Cancer of the cervix, uterus, or ovaries
Fluid-filled sacs on the ovary
Infection that causes discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning
Diseases spread through sexual contact
Uterine tissue grows outside the uterus
Cancer
Ovarian cysts
Vaginitis
STDs
Endometriosis
Infertility and Other Disorders
400,000
Most females begin their first menstrual cycle between the ages of 10 and 15.
Endocrine hormones control the cycle, but poor nutrition, stress, excessive exercise, low body weight, and illness can influence it.
Information on this presentation comes from:
'Glencoe Health' educational textbook published by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC)
All pictures and content are rights of their respective owners

Swatto is a game where you and one other student will come to the front of the classroom
TO BATTLE IT OUT
in a test of knowledge. Each player will have a
fly swatter. When the teacher reads the question, when the player believes they know the answer they will what they believe is the correct answer and hold their swatter there.
S W A T
GOOD LUCK!!!!
THYROID
OVARIES
ADRENAL
PITUITARY
GLAND
GLAND
GLAND
SWATTO!!!
PROSTATE &
VAS
DEFERENS
TESTES
PENIS
SCROTUM
SEMINAL
VESICLES
SEMEN
EPIDIDYMIS
COWPER'S GLANDS
LABIA
MENSTRATION
OVULATION
VAGINA
UTERUS
OVA
FALLOPIAN
TUBES
CERVIX
ENDOMETRIUM
URETHRA
STERILE /
TESTOSTERONE
SPERM
ESTROGEN
MENSTRUAL
CYCLE
INFERTILE
HORMONES
VULVA
Pregnancy
&
Childbirth

How do we go from a tiny sperm cell...
...to a beautiful baby?
In the beginning...
this was you!
you're so adorable
(ova)

3D video of what it looks like on the inside of the female’s body during the process of conception
CONCEPTION
What about conjoined twins?
Identical twins occur when a single fertilized egg splits and develops into two fetuses.

Always the same sex and appearance.


Multiple births are not uncommon.

Twins are produced as a result of about 3% of childbirths in America

Triplets are even more rare, resulting from less than a fraction of one percent of all child births!
What about twins?
What causes twins or multiple births?
Non-identical (fraternal twins) occur when different eggs are fertilized.

Can be the same or different sex, but do not look identical to each other.
Identical Twins
Fraternal Twins
The split for identical twins from a single egg normally happens during the first 12 days after conception. It's believed that when the fertilized egg splits later than this — usually between 13 and 14 days after conception — separation stops before the process is complete, and the resulting twins are conjoined.

The degree to which the egg splits and when the split happens determines how and where the twins will be joined.

But, another theory suggests that two separate embryos may somehow fuse together in early development.
(sometimes called Siamese Twins)
Okay, so then how does that glob of cells turn into a baby?
Then what?
8 Months
The fetus measures 16.5 to 18 inches long and weighs approximately 4.5 to 5 pounds.

The baby has likely turned head-down in preparation for its coming birth.
If a baby is born feet first, they are called a “breech baby”
The baby is rapidly gaining weight, and layers of fat are piling on under its skin which make the skin look less wrinkled.
In males, testes descend into scrotum
Bones of the head are soft
6 Months
At 6 months, the baby is 11 to 14 inches long and weighs between 1.25 and 1.5 pounds

Tiny eyebrows and eyelids are visible - eyelids no longer fused
There is a lot of evidence to show that the baby can hear the outside world - if you talk or sing, the baby might be able to hear you.
Skin wrinkled and pink
The baby's lungs are filled with amniotic fluid, it has started to practice breathing movements.
Fingerprints are formed.
4 Months
At 4 months the baby is about 6.5 to 7 inches long and weighs about 4 ounces

Head proportionately large compared to body
Face more recognizable, hair forms on head
Bones hardening, joints begin to form
Body systems developing rapidly
External sex organs identifiable
Baby is covered with a layer of thick, downy hair called lanugo.
This is when many mothers feel their baby's first thrilling kick.
7 Months
By the end of the seventh month the baby measures 13 to 17 inches and weights 2.5 to 3 pounds

Fetus is capable of surviving outside of uterus (premature babies)
His body is well formed and proportionate
Fetus may start to assume the upside down (birthing) position
The baby may try to turn toward a source of bright light/heat
5 Months
By the end of this month, the baby measures 10 to 12 inches long and weigh almost between 1/2 pound and 1 pound.

The skull bones are the most important bones being developed at this time.
Lanugo (fine hair) covers body
Head more in proportion with the rest of the body
Fetal movements are felt by the mother
If you have an ultrasound, you might see him sucking his thumb.
3 Months
Starting at eight weeks, your baby is called a fetus.

By the end of the first trimester, the fetus is 2 1/2 to 3 inches long and weighs about 1 ounce
Eyes, nose, and ears are continuing to develop
Heartbeat is detectable
He has begun swallowing and kicking.
All organs and muscles have formed and are beginning to function.
The arms, legs, hand, and fingers are fully developed with the nails on the fingers and toes are starting to develop.
2 Months
At 2 months, the embryo grows to about an 1 to 1.25 inches long and weighs about 1/30 of an ounce

Arms and legs are now distinguishable, with slightly webbed fingers and toes forming
Eyes are visible, but the eyelids are fused
Major blood vessels form
Internal organs continue developing
1 Month
By the end of the first month, the embryo is about 3/16 of an inch long.

The heart, no larger than a poppy seed, has begun beating.

Arm & leg buds begin to form

Head, mouth, liver, and intestines begin to take shape.
9 Months
The baby measures somewhere between 19 and 22 inches and typically weighs between 6 and 9 pounds, with the average baby of developed countries weighing approximately 7.5 pounds.

Lanugo (fine hair) falls off
Fat deposits continue to develop under the skin
As he becomes more crowded, you may feel him move around less.
The last few weeks, the baby “drops” in preparation for delivery – giving the mother a little breathing space.
Alexander Tsiaras Conception to Birth
(Edited)
In the United States, almost half of all pregnancies are unintended. Yet, several safe and highly effective methods of contraception (birth control) are available to prevent unintended pregnancy.

Most women of reproductive age in the United States use birth control.
Between 2006–2008, 99% of women who had ever had sexual intercourse had used at least one method of birth control
7.3% of women who were currently at risk of unintended pregnancy were not using a contraceptive method.

The most popular method of birth control was the oral contraceptive pill, used by 10.7 million women in the United States, followed by female sterilization, condoms, male sterilization, and other methods of birth control.

Approximately 10% of women had ever used emergency contraception
Contraception
Source: Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/unintendedpregnancy/contraception.htm#1
Types of Birth Control / Contraception
Source: Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/unintendedpregnancy/contraception.htm#1
sperm + egg
zygote
embryo
fetus
baby
(Ovulation occurs at day 14)
Continuous abstinence, or abstaining from sexual intercourse, is the only form of contraception that is
Copper T intrauterine device (IUD) —An IUD is a small device that is shaped in the form of a “T.” Your doctor places it inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It can stay in your uterus for up to 10 years. This IUD is more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy.

Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (IUS)—The IUS is a small T-shaped device like the IUD. It is placed inside the uterus by a doctor. It releases a small amount of progestin each day to keep you from getting pregnant. The IUS stays in your uterus for up to 5 years. The IUS is more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy.
Intrauterine Contraception
Implant
Injection
Oral Contraceptives
(The Pill)
Progestin Pill
Patch
Hormonal Vaginal
Contraceptive Ring
Emergency
Contraception
99%
94-99%
91-99%
91-99%
91-99%
91-99%
up to 99%
Hormonal Methods
Barrier Methods
Male Condom
Female Condom
Diaphragm /
Spermicide
Cervical Cap
Female Sterilization—Tubal ligation or “tying tubes”— A woman can have her fallopian tubes tied (or closed) so that sperm and eggs cannot meet for fertilization. The procedure can be done in a hospital or in an outpatient surgical center. You can go home the same day of the surgery and resume your normal activities within a few days. This method is effective immediately.

Transcervical Sterilization— A thin tube is used to thread a tiny device into each fallopian tube. It irritates the fallopian tubes and causes scar tissue to grow and permanently plug the tubes. It can take about three months for the scar tissue to grow, so use another form of birth control during this time. Return to your doctor for a test to see if scar tissue has fully blocked your fallopian tubes.

Male Sterilization–Vasectomy—This operation is done to keep a man’s sperm from going to his penis, so his ejaculate never has any sperm in it that can fertilize an egg. The procedure is done at an outpatient surgical center. The man can go home the same day. Recovery time is less than one week. After the operation, a man visits his doctor for tests to count his sperm and to make sure the sperm count has dropped to zero; this takes about 12 weeks. Another form of birth control should be used until the man’s sperm count has dropped to zero.
Permanent Methods of Birth Control
The following methods are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy.
How do we go from a tiny sperm cell...
...to a beautiful baby?
In the beginning...
this was you!
you're so adorable
(ova)
What is considered "sex?"
Anal sex is defined as the act of sexual intimacy from stimulating the anal area of another individual with the genitals, fingers, etc)
Anal Sex
Unintended consequences of sex
Mouth to penis contact (fellatio)
Oral sex is defined as the act
of sexual intimacy from:
What is considered sex?
Oral/Anal Sex Risks
Can you get pregnant from oral or anal sex?
No, you cannot get pregnant from oral or anal sex.
Mouth to vagina contact (cunnilingus)
Male inserts erect (meaning that it is hard from being filled with blood) into the female’s vagina
Sexual Intercourse – Coitus
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
When is the right time?

=
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Natural Birth
C-section
Sexually Transmitted Infections
PROJECT INSTRUCTIONS
ONE HIT WONDER
1. Use classroom handouts, prezi, notes, and the textbook for information for the STI that your group has been assigned (The CDC also provides a lot of information as well!).
2. Your
band name and CD’s title
should somehow relate to the STI you have selected.
Please be appropriate with your titles
. This will go on the FRONT of the CD case.
3. Next, your group will
create at least 8 song titles
that reference factual and educational information about your STI (signs, symptoms, statistics, health issues, etc). This will go on the BACK of the CD case.
4. Creation time! - The group will
choose 1 song from the list of 8 and write a One Hit Wonder song
! The song must have appropriate medical information about your STI and should have at least 8 lines to be a complete song.

Included in the lyrics should be information about:
a. How the disease can be transmit
b. Signs and symptoms of the disease
c. How the disease is diagnosed
d. How it can be cured if curable, or treatment for incurable diseases

5. Finally, your group will
create a CD cover
. Make sure the cover is creative and colorful! You may also do the CD cover on a computer and print it out and attach it to your paper. Alternatively, you may also email me the file to be shown on the projector.
Vocabulary & terminology
Endocrine system
Characteristics of healthy/unhealthy relationships - preventing abuse
XX / XY
Identical and fraternal twins
Trimesters of pregnancy
Menstrual cycle
Fetal development and the 3 Stages of Birth
Contraception
•Intrauterine contraception
•Hormonal methods
•Barrier protection
•Permanent methods
HIV/AIDS/STI's - causes, treatment, prevention (Abstinence!)
What else should I know for the quiz?
Contraception
Source: Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/unintendedpregnancy/contraception.htm#1
Stages of Pregnancy
A pregnancy is broken up into trimesters:
First Trimester: Weeks 0 -14
Second Trimester: Weeks 15 - 28
Third Trimester: Weeks 29 - birth
Stages of Birth
Conception to Birth
(91 to 99% effective)
What percentage of sophomores do
you think date at Hinsdale Central?


What do you think?
What is considered “dating”?


5 Healthy characteristics and 5 unhealthy characteristics

Which category do you think most HC relationships fall under according to the board?

Relationship Attachment Model

Know Trust Rely Commit Touch
I need a student who has a FRIEND that they’ve known for more than 5 years.

Rate your friendship with them according to the Relationship Attachment Model.



Know

Trust

Rely

Commit

Touch
What should you consider before deciding to begin or continue a relationship with others?

Know Trust Rely Commit Touch

Know Trust Rely Commit Touch
Assess the typical Hinsdale Central sophomore relationship for each category

The Safe Zone - Recommendation from professionals (out of 10)
o Know - 7
o Trust - 6
o Rely - 5
o Commit - 4
o Touch – 3

Create a "healthy zone" or "safe zone" using the categories to describe what each category should be rated at for someone considering a person for a potential relationship
Explanation – You should KNOW someone more than you TRUST them. You should TRUST someone more than you RELY on them. You should be able to RELY on someone more than you have to COMMIT to them, and you should be committed to someone more than you desire to TOUCH them.
Relationship Attachment Model (RAM)
Relationship Attachment Model (RAM)
Relationship attachment Model (RAM)
Relationship attachment Model (RAM)
How well do you know the individual? How much do you know about their personality, preferences, values, likes/dislikes, and other characteristics?
How much trust do you have in their integrity, their actions, and their ability to stay true to their words and promises?
How reliable is this person to you? How much do you depend on them for help, support, encouragement, affection, etc?
How committed to the friendship/relationship are you to this person? How much obligation do you feel there is to maintain this relationship to this person?
How comfortable are you with physical contact with this person?
(You will have to explain your reasoning for each ranking.)
The "Relationship Attachment Model" is provided by the Amplify Youth Development organization. For more details or to request their program to speak to your school, contact them using their website: www.amplifyyouthdevelopment.com)
Skin to skin contact
Contact or manipulation of another person's genitals (commonly referred to as masturbation) which carries the risk of disease transmission due to the potential of contact with body fluids
100% EFFECTIVE
What determines our gender?
The sperm and the ovum each contribute one set of 23 chromosomes during fertilization, which means each human has 23 pairs of chromosomes. The chromosomes are made up of genes, which as we learned are units of heredity that determine the traits and characteristics the offspring will inherit from their parents.

One pair of the 23 chromosomes consists of specialized sex chromosomes, of which there are 2 types - X and Y.
Ova always carry an X (female) chromosome
Sperm can carry an X (female) or Y (male) chromosome.
Male Chromosomes
Female Chromosomes
(Vernix is the waxy or cheese-like white substance found coating the skin of newborn human babies. Vernix starts developing on the baby in the womb around 18 weeks into pregnancy.)
Pregnancy Complications
A miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. (Pregnancy losses after the 20th week are called preterm deliveries.)

A miscarriage may also be called a "spontaneous abortion." This refers to naturally occurring events, not to medical abortions or surgical abortions.

Most miscarriages are caused by chromosome problems that make it impossible for the baby to develop. Usually, these problems are not related to the mother or father's genes.

Among women who know they are pregnant, the miscarriage rate is about 15-20%. Most miscarriages occur during the first 7 weeks of pregnancy. The rate of miscarriage drops after the baby's heart beat is detected.

The risk of miscarriage is higher in women who have had previous miscarriages and/or are older, with increases beginning by age 30, becoming greater between 35 and 40, and highest after 40

Other possible causes of miscarriage include:
Drug and alcohol abuse
Exposure to environmental toxins
Hormone problems
Infection
Obesity
Physical problems with the mother's reproductive organs
Problem with the body's immune response
Serious body-wide (systemic) diseases in the mother (such as uncontrolled diabetes)
Smoking
Miscarriage
The following are some common maternal health conditions or problems a woman may experience during pregnancy—
Anemia
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI's)
Mental health conditions
Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Obesity and weight gain
Infections
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
A type of diabetes that is first diagnosed in a pregnant woman. Out of every 100 pregnant women in the U.S., two to ten will have gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy, but if it does not go away, it is known as type 2 diabetes.
Hyperemesis Gravidarum (morning sickness)
The cause of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is believed to be rapidly rising blood levels of a hormone called HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which is released by the placenta
(Don't worry, both are CGI animations!)
Talk to your doctor and other health professionals about reproductive health and safety
Know the facts
ROUND 1:
A loose sac of skin that hangs outside the male body which holds the testes.
REVIEW TIME!
The process of shedding the uterine lining
Abstinence
The gland that produces hormones that regulate metabolsim, body heat, and bone growth produces the hormone thyroxine.
The term for the external female reproductive system organs, which consists of the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vaginal opening, and clitoris
The tubes on each side of the uterus that connect the uterus to the region of the ovaries
The two female sex glands that produce mature ova and female hormones
The process of releasing one mature ovum each month into a fallopian tube
The elastic, muscle-lined tube of the female, which is also called the birth canal
Chemical substances that regulate the activities of different body cells and organs
The male
sex hormone
The female
sex hormone
The male reproductive
sex cells
A mixture of sperm and glandular secretions that leave the male body during ejaculation
A long tube that connects each epididymis with the urethra
These are glands in the male reproductive system that add secretions that support the sperm as they move through the reproductive system
The opening of the uterus that connects the uterus to the vaginal canal
A hollow, muscular organ that receives and holds the fertilized ovum during pregnancy.
The tube that connects to the bladder that allows fluids to leave the reproductive system
The inability to produce offspring because of complications to the reproductive system
The lining of the uterus that sheds during menstruation
The only form of contraception/birth control that is 100% effective in preventing both pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases
A highly coiled structure located on the back side of each of the male's testes.
A tubelike organ that functions in both sexual reproduction and the elimination of body wastes
Round 2: Team Answers
Write your answers on your note card
Intrauterine Contraception
Hormonal methods
Implant
Injection
Oral contraceptives (the pill)
Progestin Pill
Patch
Contraceptive ring
Emergency Contraception
Barrier Methods:
Male condom
Female condom
Diaphragm/cervical cap (with or without spermacide)
Permanent Methods:
Female - Tubal litigation "tying tubes"
Female - Transcervical Sterilization
Male Vasectomy
The endocrine system gland that is known as the "master gland"
Any use of prescription or non prescription devices or products that are designed to prevent pregnancy
A.
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
What are the 3 stages of birth in order?
A.
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
J
Aside from remaining abstinent, what are other forms of contraception that are available to use to reduce the chances of a pregnancy occurring?

With the passing of House Bill 2675 in August of 2013, the law now states that as of January 1st, 2014 in addition to focusing the curriculum on abstinence from sexual activity outside of marriage, public schools are now required to teach about contraception as well. The bill states:

“Course material and instruction shall place substantial emphasis on both abstinence, including abstinence until marriage, and contraception for the prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among youth and shall stress that abstinence is the ensured method of avoiding unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV/AIDS.”

-Source: (105 ILCS 5/27-9.1) (from Ch. 122, par. 27-9.1)


NEW LAW:
GROUND RULES
Correct and appropriate terminology
Respect others diversity and opinions. Stay non-judgmental
It's okay to ask questions, and it's okay to pass on them as well.
Keep confidentiality, and avoid personal stories about others (speak for yourself, not for others)
If there is an issue please talk to your teacher immediately.
For more information and guides on how to conduct an effective Breast Self-Exam, please use the following sources:

BreastCancer.org - http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/testing/types/self_exam/bse_steps
Susan G. Koman Foundation: - http://ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/BreastSelfExam.html
American Cancer Society - http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/index


Image Source: https://edc2.healthtap.com/ht-staging/user_answer/avatars/784145/large/open-uri20130105-11874-1jq7lbq.jpeg?1386570647
Abigail Loraine Hensel and Brittany Lee Hensel (born March 7, 1990) are dicephalic parapagus twins, meaning that they are conjoined twins, each of whom has a separate head, but whose bodies are joined. They are highly symmetric, giving the appearance of having just a single body with little variation from normal proportion. In fact, several vital organs are doubled up; each twin has a separate heart, stomach, spine, and spinal cord.

Each twin controls her half of their body, operating one of the arms and one of the legs. This means that as infants, the initial learning of physical processes that required bodily coordination, such as clapping, crawling, and walking required the cooperation of both children. While each is able to eat and write separately and simultaneously, activities such as running and swimming must be coordinated and alternate symmetrically. Other activities as diverse as brushing hair and driving a car require that each twin perform a sequence of separate actions that coordinate with the other.
Abby & Brittany Hensel
2 people - 1 body
Abigail and Brittany have individual organs in the upper part of their body, while most of them located at or below the level of the navel are shared, the exception being the spinal cord.

2 heads
2 spines merging at the coccyx and joined at the thorax by sections of ribs. Surgery was employed to correct scoliosis.
2 completely separate spinal cords
2 arms (originally 3, but rudimentary central arm was surgically removed, leaving central shoulder blade in place)
1 broad ribcage with 2 highly fused sternums and traces of bridging ribs. Surgery was employed to expand the pleural cavities.
2 breasts
2 hearts in a shared circulatory system (nutrition, respiration, medicine taken by either affects both)
4 lungs with the medial lungs moderately fused, not involving Brittany's upper right lobe; three pleural cavities
1 diaphragm with well-coordinated involuntary breathing, slight central defect
2 stomachs
2 gallbladders
1 liver, enlarged and elongated right lobe
Y-shaped small intestine, which experiences a slightly spastic double peristalsis at the juncture
1 large intestine (one colon)
3 kidneys: 2 left, 1 right
1 bladder
1 set of reproductive organs
2 separate half-sacrums, which converge distally
1 slightly broad pelvis
2 legs
"What if the woman can't get pregnant or has health issues that make pregnancy dangerous? What are other alternatives?"


Traditional surrogates -
Artificial insemination first made surrogacy possible. A traditional surrogate is a woman who is artificially inseminated with the father's sperm. She then carries the baby and delivers it for the parents to raise. A traditional surrogate is the baby's biological mother. That's because it was her egg that was fertilized by the father's sperm. Donor sperm can also be used for a traditional surrogacy.


Gestational surrogates -
In vitro fertilization (IVF) now makes it possible to harvest eggs from the mother, fertilize them with sperm from the father, and place the embryo into the uterus of a gestational surrogate. The surrogate then carries the baby until birth. A gestational surrogate has no genetic ties to the child. That's because it wasn't her egg that was used. A gestational surrogate is called the "birth mother." The biological mother, though, is still the woman whose egg was fertilized.

In the U.S., gestational surrogacy is less complex legally. That's because both intended parents have genetic ties to the baby. As a result, gestational surrogacy has become more common than a traditional surrogate. About 750 babies are born each year using gestational surrogacy
What should someone consider before thinking about using a surrogate process?
Surrogate Mothers & Surrogate Agencies

A person should always consider their
values
as well as the
advice of a medical professional
before exploring surrogacy methods.
Cost
may be another large factor as well, as the process can be expensive depending on which surrogate method is used. There are two kinds of surrogate mothers:
Agency International Surcharge - $3,500
This fee is for intended parents who reside outside the United States.

Agency Support Group Coordinator Fee - $1,200
One time fee paid to The Surrogacy Source staff to hold monthly surrogate support group meetings and cover the cost for supplies, gifts, food, guest speakers.

Surrogate Mother Reimbursement of Living Expenses - Starting at $30,000
Experienced surrogate mother fees range between $32,000 up to $40,000

Surrogate Monthly Misc. Costs - $2,400
Paid to surrogate at the rate of $200 per month. This monthly allowance is for any miscellaneous costs related to the surrogate arrangement and is intended to cover local (in county) mileage, parking, meals, childcare for medical appointments, postage, faxing, phone calls and over the counter vitamins or supplements.

Surrogate Support Group Attendance - $1,200
Paid ($100. per month) to your surrogate for her attendance in mandatory support group meetings.

Embryo Transfer Fee - $1,000
Paid to surrogate and is intended to reimburse her for any lost wages, childcare or housekeeping as a result of bed rest due to the embryo transfer.

Maternity Clothing Allowance - $1,000
This one time fee is to cover maternity clothing needed for surrogate.


Cesarean Section Fee - $2,500
This fee is to compensate for additional discomfort and recovery time required with Doctor recommended C-Section

Possible Insurance - Up to $32,500
The insurance fee may vary depending on the surrogate you select, single vs. multiples pregnancy, and whether the surrogate is currently insured with maternity benefits.

Life Insurance - $595
A one year policy is purchased for the surrogate and her family in the event of surrogate death.

Criminal Background Check - $250
All surrogates and spouses must be cleared criminally before they are added to our database.

Psychological Screening - $1000
All surrogates must pass an interview and testing to make sure they are “ready” and fully understand their role as a surrogate mother.

Independent Escrow Fee - $750
The Escrow fee will be deducted from your initial escrow deposit ($650 + $10 per check).

Attorney Fees - $5,000
Paid directly to your attorney and should cover the surrogate agreement draft, parental rights filing and surrogate representation.
Common Surrogate Costs and Fees
(All figures are approximate and may vary)
Teen Dating Abuse
"Teen dating violence is defined as the physical, sexual, or psychological/emotional violence within a dating relationship, as well as stalking. It can occur in person or electronically and may occur between a current or former dating partner.
"
-Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC)


In a nationwide survey, of high school students report being hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend
in the 12 months prior to the survey.

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey).


Adolescents and adults are often unaware that teens experience dating violence.

9.4%
About and nearly who ever experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner, first experienced
some form of partner violence between 11 and 17 years of age
.

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey).
1 in 5 women
1 in 7 men
Power and Control Wheel
AIDS stands for
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome,
which is the final stage of HIV infection. Not everyone who has HIV advances to this stage. People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems.

A person will not reach the state called “AIDS” until the HIV virus has caused their CD4+ T-cell count to drop
below 200 cells/mm3
A
normal
CD4 count ranges from
500–1,000
cells/mm3.
When your CD4 count is 350 cells/mm3 or less, it’s time to consider treatment.
A CD4 count of fewer than 200 cells/mm3 is one of the qualifications for a diagnosis of AIDS.
Your CD4 count can vary from day to day. It can also vary depending on the time of day




AIDS

What is HIV?

HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS. CDC estimates that about
50,000 people in the United States contract HIV annually.


HIV damages a person’s body by destroying specific blood cells, called
CD4+ T cells
, which are crucial to helping the body fight diseases.

What causes HIV?

HIV in America

"I often say I'm good for the virus, and bad for it," Johnson said. "Good because I'm doing well, and that I can go out and try and raise the awareness level, get people to go get tested ... but on the flip side of that, people see that I'm doing well, so they've kind of relaxed on HIV and AIDS. People think that now if they get the virus, they'll do well, but a couple million will die this year.“
- Magic Johnson (November 2011)


Magic Johnson and HIV today

Ervin “Magic” Johnson was one of the greatest basketball players to have ever played the game during his time in the NBA in the 80’s and 90’s.

However, on November 7th, 1991, he held a sudden press conference with news that would shock the world…



“The Announcement” – Magic Johnson

Scientists identified a type of
chimpanzee
in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world.

The earliest known case of infection with HIV-1 in a human was detected in a blood sample collected in
1959
from a man in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. (How he became infected is not known.) Genetic analysis of this blood sample suggested that HIV-1 may have stemmed from a single virus in the late 1940s or early 1950s.

Source:
The Aids Institute


Origins of HIV
We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the
mid- to late 1970s
. From 1979–1981 rare types of pneumonia, cancer, and other illnesses were being reported by doctors in Los Angeles and New York among a number of male patients who had sex with other men. These were conditions not usually found in people with healthy immune systems.

In 1982 public health officials began to use the term "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome," or AIDS, to describe the occurrences of opportunistic infections, Kaposi's sarcoma (a kind of cancer), and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in previously healthy people. Formal tracking (surveillance) of AIDS cases began that year in the United States.

In 1983, scientists discovered the virus that causes AIDS. The virus was at first named HTLV-III/LAV (human T-cell lymphotropic virus-type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus) by an international scientific committee. This name was later changed to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).

Source
: The Aids Institute


For many years scientists theorized as to the origins of HIV and how it appeared in the human population, most believing that HIV originated in other primates. Then in 1999, an international team of researchers reported that they had discovered the origins of HIV-1, the predominant strain of HIV in the developed world. A subspecies of chimpanzees native to west equatorial Africa had been identified as the original source of the virus. The researchers believe that HIV-1 was introduced into the human population when hunters became exposed to infected blood.
In the case of AIDS, this can include the development of certain infections and/or cancers, as well as a decrease in the number of certain specific blood cells, called CD4+ T cells, which are crucial to helping the body fight disease.

Before the development of certain medications, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Currently, people can live much longer - even decades - with HIV before they develop AIDS. This is because of “highly active” combinations of medications that were introduced in the mid 1990s.

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