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THE SECONDARY SECTOR

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Transcript of THE SECONDARY SECTOR

thE secondary sector
MINING ACTIVITY
Minerals
: are natural resources found in the earth's crust.
Mining
: is the activity to extract minerals, fuels and other materials from the earth's crust.

Mineral deposit
- concentration.

¿Primary or Secondary sector?

Problems caused by mining:
- Environmental impact.
- Depletion of resources.
- Conflicts and social imbalance.

Classification according to
where energies sources are found
:
-
Primary energies:
are obtained directly from nature - fossil fuels or renewable energies.
-
Secondary energies:
are produced from a primary source- petrol or diesel.
NATURAL RESOURCES
Most of the energy we use comes from natural resources.
These can be classified as:
- Renewable natural resources
- Non-renewable natural resources
The natural resorces are unevenly geographically distributed. Its production and consumption are also unequal. Consumption is very high in developed countries. Developing countries are the biggest producers of NR.
The exploitation of these resources depends on:
- Technological development
- The cost of its exploitation
- The behavior of the markets

DEPLETION OF NATURAL RESOURCES


THE SECONDARY SECTOR
The secondary sector transforms raw materials extracted by the primary economy into finished goods.

ENERGY SOURCES
Energy sources:
 are the natural resources used by humans to produce the necessary force to run machines, industries and transports.

Classification
:

-
Renewable energies:

Those which cannot be used up or can naturally recovered.
-Hydraulic, solar, wind, tidal, geotermal and biomass.
-
Non-renewable energies:
Those which can be used up or cannot easily be replaced.
-Coal, oil, natural gas and uranium.

URANIUM
Uranium is a chemical element found in a very small amount in the nature, rocks, water, ground (uraninite).

The rocks are chemically treated to separate the uranium.


It is radioactive and toxic.

It is used as fuel in nuclear power plants, aircraft manufacturing, satellites, weapons ...
It produces heat that is transformed into electricity.

Main producers: USA, Canada, France, Russia, Japan,...
NATURAL GAS

Natural gas is a

fossil fuel

used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation.

Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds or petroleum. It is
created by sediments of organisms
in marshes or deep in the earth, at high temperature and pressure.

It is a mixture consisting primarily of
methane
.

Main countries:
Russia, Canada and the Middle East

It is less polluting than the oil.

MINing, ENERGy and INDUSTRy
Según WWF la humanidad consumirá en el año 2050 el equivalente a los recursos anuales de dos planetas como la Tierra.
Consequences of Depletion of Natural Resources
- Some non-renewable natural resources (oil) have an
expiry date
.

- The progressive depletion of natural resources will cause an increase in prices.

- The uncontrolled use of certain fuels (gasoline) is causing the pollution of the planet.

- Depletion of natural resources is detrimental to biodiversity and causes deforestation.

- It is increasing the differences between rich and poor and leads armed conflicts.
Unequal distribution of production and consumption of the enery in the world.

It is possible to make a non-renewable use of a renewable resource, causing its depletion due to overexploitation.
It is a

fossil fuel.

Petroleum is
formed
when large quantities of dead organisms are buried under sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure.
It is refined and separated into a large number of consumer
products
, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and plastics.

Biggest reserves: Persian Gulf, Venezuela and Canada.
OPEC
– Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

Environmental problems.
OIL
It is a fossil fuel formed by the decomposing of vegetation in shallow water.

The main fuel until 20th century.

It is used to produce electricity, iron and steel.

Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel.

Main deposits: China, Russia and North America.

Huge environmental problems.
COAL
RENEWABLE ENERGY
Renewable energy is obtained from inexhaustible natural sources, which are able to regenerated by natural means –
alternative energies
Energy crisis

Non-polluting
: Hydraulic, wind, solar, geothermal, tidal.

Clasification:

Polluting:

Biomass.

It has been in daily use since the early times. XVIII - fall into disuse. Rapid growth since 70s.
SECTOR SECUNDARIO
Aquel que se refiere a la
transformación de las materias primas
para convertirlas en productos elaborados.
Ocupa una
posición intermedia
entre las actividades extractivas de recursos naturales y las actividades de los servicios, destinadas a distribuir los bienes producidos.

Las
materias primas
: son los recursos que nos proporciona la
naturaleza y que nosotros transformamos para poder utilizarlos
(Vegetal, animal, mineral).

Los
recursos
: son los productos naturales de los que el
hombre puede sacar beneficio o provecho (minerales,
el suelo, el agua,
el sol, el viento,…)



Desarrollo sostenible
Se basa en: sociedad, economía y medio ambiente.
- El uso de fuentes de energía renovable.
- El uso de fuentes limpias.
- Fomento del autoconsumo, evitando grandes infraestructuras.
- La disminución de la demanda energética.
- Reducir o eliminar el consumo energético innecesario.
Desarrollar una conciencia y una cultura del ahorro energético y condena del despilfarro.
"Satisfacer las necesidades de las generaciones presentes sin comprometer las posibilidades de las generaciones del futuro para atender sus propias necesidades".
LA INDUSTRIA
Actividades para la transformación de materias primas en productos manufacturados.
1º Revolución Industrial
- siglo XVIII en Inglaterra:
- Innovaciones técnicas (máquina de vapor,...)
- Nuevas fuentes de energía - carbón.
- Creación de fábricas.

2º Revolución Industrial

- siglo XIX
- Petróleo, electricidad
- Taylorismo y Modelo Fordista. Basado en la producción en cadena. Produjo un aumento de la producción y una reducción de costes.

3º Revolución Industrial
- siglo XX Crisis del petróleo de 1973
- Reorganización de la Industria - Descentralización
- Electrónica, energía nuclear, TIC
- Desarrollo técnico - sector cuaternario.
- BRICS - - Primera potencia industrial del mundo
-
1950
- Industria muy escasa y atrasada.
-
1980
- Seguía el modelo soviético.
-
s. XXI
- Cambio de la política económica hacia la liberación económica.
- Abundancia de
materias primas
.
-
Mano de obra
abundante y barata.
- Considerable
potencial energético
.
- Industrias:
Industrias de base (química, acero, maquinaria y cemento)
Industrias de bienes de consumo (textil, juguete, alimentaria).
Grandes desequilibrios espaciales.
CHINA
Primera
potencia económica
- 2º en producción industrial.
Industria - importante sector en la economía. Factores:
- Riqueza en
materias primas
y fuentes de energía.
- 1º productor mundial de
hidrocarburos
.
- Gran capital
-
Diversificación industrial
:
- Alimenticia, química, metalúrgica
- Automóvil
- Automatización
- Mano de obra cualificada.
ESTADOS UNIDOS
- Gran desarrollo industrial, financiero y tecnológico.
-
Escasez de Recursos Naturales
.
Potencia industrial fuertemente dependiente de Recursos energéticos importados.

- Pequeñas y medianas empresas
-
Mano de obra
abundante y barata.
- Elevado nivel
tecnológico
.
-
Industrias
: textil, siderúrgica, naval, automóvil.

- Grandes desequilibrios regionales y deterioro del medio ambiente.
JAPÓN
POTENCIAS MUNDIALES - POTENCIAS INDUSTRIALES
Desde el año 2014, la mayor economía del mundo en términos de paridad de poder adquisitivo (PIB) es la República Popular China
What is the difference between raw material and natural resource?

The
natural resource
is obtained from nature (
forest, mineral
) and the
raw material
is created by processing the natural resource (
wood, iron
)
http://www.theworldcounts.com/stories/consequences_of_depletion_of_natural_resources
As of 2010, the known reserves of natural gas was estimated to last 58.6 years with the current global production.
Oil reserves only for the next 46.2 years.
Coal reserves for the next 130 years.
Uranium reserves for the next 85 years.
Advantages and drawbacks.
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