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Ancient Civilization

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by

Amber Hodges

on 22 August 2013

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Transcript of Ancient Civilization

Ancient Civilizations
Called
nomads:
Hunters and Gathers in search of food
small groups made finding food easier
do not stay in one area very long
used simple tools and fire
development of language
burial of the dead
Paleolithic Era
Early Hominids
The first humans are believed to have originated from Africa
Neolithic Revolution
people begin to give up their nomadic ways and begin to settle in communities
Domestication:
the selective growing of plants and animals to make them more useful to humans
these communities are settled by
fertile river valleys
for
fertile soil
protection
transportation
Neolithic Era
Farming
domestication of plants and animals
settlement in villages
Increase in activities and trade
Civilization is a complex and organized society
Civilizations
7 Characteristics of Civilizations
Arts and Architecture
Record Keeping and Writing
Social Classes
Specialization of Labor
Organized Government
Formalized Religion
Developed Cities
All Civilizations are located along Fertile River Valleys
1st civilization
Mesopotamia
Geography
a large band of fertile land in the midst of the desert and mountains
Mesopotamia means "the land between two rivers"
had the most fertile land
the Tigris and Euphrates flood yearly leaving behind fertile soil
Floods also destroyed crops and land
They began to develop methods for controlling water:
basins
canals
dikes
irrigation systems
Change in Civilizations:
geography
politics
movement of people and ideas
Cultural Diffusion
the spread of ideas, beliefs, customs and technology from one culture to another
Key People/ Vocabulary
Fertile Crescent
Cuneiform
ziggarat
Irrigation
city-state
polytheism
dynasty
Sumerians
Akkadians
Babylonians
Hammurabi
Hittites
Chaldeans
Nebuchadnezzar
Key Impact/
Achievements
Cuneiform
Sumerian Writing used first for business records then later for law, grammar and literature
Marks the transition from pre-history to the historical age
3000BC
Math and Science
developed a math system based on 60
learned how to use geometry to build structures
Ziggurats
a pyramid shaped structure located at the heart of the temple
it was dedicated to the city's chief gods
Irrigation
built up natural earth walls (levees) to prevent flooding
when the land was dry farmers poked holes in the levees so the water would flow through the holes into the dry fields
Government
City-States
a political unit with it's own government
as city-states grew they began to fight over land and water
DYNASTY
a government that is ruled by a series of rulers from one family
Religion
Polytheism
the worship of many gods
Sumerians believed gods controlled all natural forces
one god protected each city-state
TRADE
Sumerians lack many raw materials
they begin to trade with people across SW Asia
Social
Law and Order
Government organized irrigation building projects
Hammarabi's Code
Kings & priests
Large landowners and wealthy merchants
Artisans, farmers, laborers
Slaves
were usually prisoners of war
Fertile Crescent Empires
Key People/Vocabulary
Geography
Key Impact/
Achievements
Government
Religion
Trade
Social
Law and Order
Indo European tribes invaded Mesopotamia from the steppes north of the Black Sea
The Assyrian Empire
The Phoenician Empire
originally from northern Mesopotamia
were frequently invaded due to location
900BC
Assyrian rule included all Mesopotamia as well as parts of Asia Minor and Egypt
Phoenicia emerged as a major trading center
Assyrian Impacts/Achievements
created an effective system of government
Kings ruled through local leaders
local leaders governed small areas of the empire
collected taxes
enforced laws
raised armies
developed a warrior society due to invasions
used terror to control conquered territories
to maintain peace across the empire Assyrians would ruthlessly punish anyone who opposed them
"I fed their corpses- cut into small pieces- to the dogs, the swine, the wolves, the vultures"
Assyrian land received good rainfall and laid along major trade routes
Road system allowed trade to prosper
Road system allowed for troops to move with ease
Created an efficient system of government
Road system:
linked distant parts of the empire
Adopted many aspects of Sumerian culture
Polytheism
Phoenician Impacts/ Achievements
lay on the western end of the Fertile Crescent
Farming was difficult and resources were limited
turned to the sea for trade
Phoenicians were expert sailors
dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea
trade brought great wealth
social system was much like the Sumerian system
Maritime law
merchants and traders had to follow the customs of their port cities
Kings ruled however their power was limited by the powerful merchants
invented glassblowing
skillful traders
invented the world's first alphabet
Trade
Indo-Europeans
Assyrians
Phoenicians
The Persian Empire
Key People/ Vocabulary
Geography
Key Impact/
Achievements
Government
Religion
Trade
Social
Law and Order
Cyrus the Great
Darius I
satrap
Xerxes
Zoroaster
dualism
Royal Road
Persian Royal Road
stretched over 1,500 miles
allowed troops to move with ease
messengers to travel faster
trade prospered
Darius I built roads to increase trade
Satraps
Darius I chose governors called satraps to help him rule
Cyrus the Great founded the Persian Empire
he vastly expanded the Empire
formed around fertile river valleys and expanded due to trade
Main Leaders of the Persian Empire
Cyrus the Great
Cambyses II
Darius I
Xerxes
Zororastrianism
Based on the teachings of Zoroaster
taught
dualism
:
belief that the world is controlled by good and evil forces
Spread through most of the empire
Still practiced in Asia today
Darius I created Persia's first permanent army
Coins
Darius I minted the first Persian coins
Art and Architecture
art included exotic animals
objects of gold and precious gems
highly decorated buildings
territories Cyrus the Great conquered were allowed to keep their customs and traditions
The Egyptian Empire
Key People/ Vocabulary
Geography
Key Impact/
Achievements
Government
Religion
Trade/Technology
Social
Law and Order
India
Key People/Vocabulary
Geography
Key Impact/ Achievement
Government
Religion
Trade
Social
Law and Order
China
India
South: Deccan Plateau
North: Himalaya and Hindu Kush Mountains
Indus & Ganges river
India is a
subcontinent
Nile River
Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
Pharaoh
Theocracy
Bureaucracy
Obelisks
Mummification
Hieroglyphics
Rosetta Stone
Hatsheput
Amenhotep IV
Ramses the Great
Nile River
runs 4000 miles long through N. Africa
floods predictably
the
delta
is where the richest soil is found
the mouth of the river
Sahara Desert surrounds Egypt providing protection
Cataracts
offer protection
stretch of river with rocks, rapids and swift currents
Theocracy
Bureaucracy
a type government ruled by a religious figure
Pharaoh's
were the head of the government had absolute power
Egyptians believed that he was a god in human form
a highly structured organization managed by officials who help the pharaoh rule
1353 BC:
Amenhotep IV changed Egyptian religion to
monotheistic
After his death it is changed back to polytheistic
originally polytheistic
trade routes were unsafe
pharaoh's took extra measures to secure them
they adopted the use of chariots to protect themselves from invaders
Pharaoh/ Royal Family
Priest, Government officials, scribes, military leaders, doctors and landowners
Peasant Farmers
made up 90% of the population
Artisans, Craftspeople, and Merchants
the Pharaoh made the laws and lead the armies
Writing
Science
Math
Hieroglyphics
: system of writing that uses picture and symbols to represent objects, sounds, ideas
Papyrus
: a plant Egyptians used to make paper-like sheets
Rosetta Stone
: granite stone found that helped decipher hieroglyphics
medicine cured simple illness
mastered of human anatomy
mummification:
process of preserving the body with chemicals after death
performed surgeries
Geometry and engineering allowed Egyptians to build
pyramids
built as tombs for pharaoh's
In between the two is where society first developed
China
Huang He (Yellow) River
Yangtze River
Himalaya Mountains
Plateau of Tibet; fertile soil
Gobi Desert
subcontinent
monsoons
castes
Hinduism
reincarnation
karma
Buddhism
Four Noble Truths
Mandate of Heaven
Confucianism
Daoism
Buddhism
These physical features provided protection
The Caste System
Brahmins
Kshatriyas
Vaisyas
Sudras
priests and teachers
warriors and rulers
traders, farmers and herders
Servants
Limited trade due to location
Economy was mainly agriculture
India's Lasting Contributions
The Caste System
Hinduism
Buddhism
Hinduism
has no founder
influenced by many cultures
Basic beliefs:
Dharma
Karma
Moksha
Samsara (reincarnation)
Buddhism
Founded by Siddhartha Guatama
Four Noble Truths
Suffering comes from the desire for pleasure and material things
Overcoming these desires brings suffering to an end
This happens by following the Eightfold Truth
due to location economy was mainly based on farming and metalwork
the silk road
China's Lasting Contributions
Dynasty
Qin
Han
Sui
Ming
Mandate of Heaven
stated that the gods would support a just ruler
Buddhism
Confucianism
Developed lunar calendar
Daoism
Great Wall
Silk Road
not actually a paved road
China traded silk and spices with Rome for gold and precious gems
Kings appointed governors to rule distant parts of the kingdom
groups of villages banded together under regional leaders known as
rajas
society was structured based on the dynasty ruling
Monarchy
a type of government that is ruled by a king or queen
Full transcript