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Art History Timeline
Transcript of Art History Timeline
These primitives are more concerned with the usefulness of the object or building rather than its aesthetics. The exquisite Sleeping Lady from the Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni. It is made of well polished brown clay and on the surface it has traces of red ochre. The clothed figure has abnormally fat limbs and hips. She is naked to the waist and has a skirt with a fringed lower part. The feet are broken away. The wooden framework of the bed and the rush mattress is clearly visible underneath the statuette. According to Sir Temi Zammit, it was found in the 'snake/votive pit' in the main level of the Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni Egyptian Art When studying these works, we need to keep in mind that they were not meant to be enjoyed but to ‘keep alive’. At first, in order to secure the king’s arrival to the gods, a number of servants used to be sacrificed but this was later considered as being too cruel and for this reason, paintings came to play.
What mattered to these artists was not prettiness but the preservation of everything as clearly and permanently as possible. They drew from memory. They simply followed a rule which allowed them to include anything important in the human form. The king of the Eighteenth dynasty, Akhanten, broke many of the traditional customs of ancient, Egyptian art. On his tomb walls, he did not commission artists to paint or sculpt his gods but instead he represented himself and his wife with their children.
Tutankhamun was his successor whose treasured tomb was discovered in 1922. the back of the king’s throne portrays the king and the queen in their homely environment.
But this new style did not survive long as already during his reign, the old beliefs were restored and continued to exist for another thousand years or more. the back of the king’s throne portrays the king and the queen in their homely environment. his wife was of the same height - giving it equal importance. greek art The Greeks no longer followed the rules of their ancestors, but started observing real models to make their sculptures as realistic as possible. Although he did apply the traditions of Egyptian art with the trunk in front view, the legs and arms in side view, he moved away from the predetermined and rigid formulae and asked a real model to take up the pose and worked from observation. discus thrower - myron hellenistic period Artists became interested in representing the struggle of the humans by evoking figures in pain and in tension with their reliefed muscles and veins. Loacoon and his Sons The exact moment when the gods sent two gigantic snakes to this priest and his sons to coil around them and suffocate them. Parthenon Roman art Rather than idealising portaits like the Greeks, the Romans saught likeliness and harsh realism early christian art When Christian artists were first called upon to represent the Saviour and his apostles, it was again the tradition of Greek art which came to their aid”. miracle of loaves and fishes story-telling
to the illiterate
simple illustrations Byzantine Christian Art mysterious reflections of the supernatural
to worship God through the images
artists had to follow traditional iconography
christ = majestic figure, ruler of the universe with the judging hand always raised up medieval art term was invented by the Renaissance people who thought that their own age and the time of the ancient Greece and Rome were civilized and advanced while the people of this chaotic period were plunged in darkness because of the wars of migrations. As a matter of fact, it is also referred to as the Dark Ages. pre-romanesque period monks became interested in art
north barbarians had craftsmen interested in interlaced patterns in wood and metal gospels - illuminated manuscripts lindisfarne gospels- eadfrith the evangelist page
carpet page - a cross, interlaced design
incipit page- the first letter of the gospel medieval artists did not paint what they knew like the egyptians or what they saw like the greeks, BUT WHAT THEY FELT. adam and eve after the fall commissioned for the church of Hildensheim in Germany.
The shifting of guilt predominates this sculpture so much that we forget about the unproportioned figures of Adam and Eve and the golden rules of human beauty. romanesque period the church was the only stone building in the village
development of a new style of building - Normans - Romanesque- ifluenced by the early Roman architecture tunnel vaults Tremendous pillars were built on both sides, which were to carry the arches of those bridges. cross- ribbed vaults it was not really necessary to make the whole roof so heavy.
produced a number of form arches spanning the distance and to fill in the intervals with lighter material.
the arches or ribs were spanned crosswise and then the triangular sections between them were filled in. last judgement - gislebertus, autun cathedral This work was to educate and instruct the illiterate
It displays the separation of the blessed from the damned, almost suggesting that if you do not live a good life, you will end up with the damned. christ as ruler of the universe As the artists no longer felt obliged to study and imitate the real gradations of shades that occur in nature, they were free to choose any colour they liked for their illustrations. It was this freedom from the need to imitate the natural world that was to enable them to convey the idea of the supernatural gothic period introduced in France
steeper vaults, hence, they required them in two segments - to remain variable in height
this vaulting had its countereffects as it pushed the walls outwards - flying buttresses to counter-force the weight flying buttresses the gothic cathedral gothic sculpture- chartres cathedral west portal statues predominantly architectural
figures are column-like, full of symbolic connotations italian gothic art it got to Italy only by the 1250s
nicola pisano merged the examples of the french masters with the methods of the classical sculpture to represent nature more convincingly. pisan pulpit octagonal pedestal
columns rest on animals and telemons
the evangelists are set at the spandrels
the pulpit itself - 5 scenes from the life of christ - The Annunciation, Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, the Presentation, the Crucifixion and the Last Judgement giotto italian sculptors were even slower to adopt the gothic style through the close contacts with the Byzantine Empire
churches were still decorated in mosaic
giotto brought about this evolution by transforming the gothic scupltures into paintings
known for his frescoes, humanism, drama, and representation of space the mourning of christ dramatization
representation of a crowd
central focus of the story
byzantine, golden haloes
more volume in the figures giotto cimabue massive figures
spatial disctance through the overlapping of angels
gothic architectural influence in the arches elongated figures
almond-shaped eyes, tiny facial features
long, dainty fingers
no single persepective in the throne
angels are in pattern with identical faces duccio - sienese school sienese school was marked with the elegant s-shaped figures, elongated in a twisted pose. duccio's Maesta for the Sienese Cathedral simone martini and lippo memmi words flying out of the angel's mouth
rich symbolism - byzantine influence- vase with lilies = purity, dove = holy spirit
gothic arches international gothic in northern europe spending time at the pope's court in France, Martini ended up influencing a number of European artists
changes in the 13th century:
the bishops had the mission to build massive cathedrals that outstage baron's castles and huge monastries, become the centre of the city;
nobles moved to cities
crusades ended. tres riches heurs jean and paul de limbourg nobles started commisioning the first works
custom of mid-ages to illustrate the calendar with the occupations specific to every month - harvesting, hunting, sawing
it presents the feast "Joli Mois de Mais" in which one was asked to wear a green garment international gothic in italy its arrival in Florence is demonstrated in Lorenzo Monaco - mered Giotto with Sienese Art.
reached its triumph in Gentile di Fabriano, who was very much after tenderness and softness in the overall look of his works.
The crucial difference between the two styles: the Giottesque tradition and the International Gothic can be easily seen in the contrasts between Gentile and Masaccio, Ghiberti and Donatello. In fact, this difference became the Great Divide in the 15th century. gentile di fabriano vs masaccio masaccio - trinity Painted on the left wall of St. Maria Novella
a small chapel in one point persp, containing the three persons of the Holy Trinity
a fictive altar and beneath it is an open sarcophagus supporting a skeleton
The space outside the chapel is filled with the three-dimensionally modeled figures of the patrons. gentile di fabriano
adoration of the magi