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Methods/Types of training
Transcript of Methods/Types of training
Circuit training use a variety of different exercises or activities that commonly known as
. They are completed
one after another
with a brief period of rest in between. When you have finished all the exercises you have completed
and there is usually a slightly longer rest.
Weight training is primarily used to improve some aspects of muscular strength, which could also include power and endurance.
It may also have benefits by:
improving muscular strength
increasing muscle size or bulk
assisting recovery after injury
This is any type of training that keeps the heart rate (pulse rate), high over a sustained period of time. This can be achieved by taking part in any of the following:
Aerobics (exercise sessions)
The popular way of carrying out continuous training is through using a specific machines such as: treadmill, cross trainer or exercise bike.
Training method that has periods of work and periods of rest, with variations of two.
High Intensity Interval Training involves alternating between short periods of intense work in the anaerobic training zone and periods of active recovery in the aerobic zone.
Long interval training
Work periods of between 15 sec-3 min at about 80-85% MHR, with corresponding rest periods for recovery.
Short interval training
Short periods of work up to 15 sec., but at 100%, with recovery time up to 2 min. (good method for racket sport players or sprinters)
This is Swedish word meaning "speed play". It is form of interval training that can include walking, brisk walking, jogging and fast steady running. Usually completed in outdoor environment so the various terrain can help performers to vary speed and work/rest ratio.
Exercise/activities should be demonstrated and performed using
to ensure that the performer receives the maximum benefit from the training.
must meet the needs of the performers. There should always be a recovery period build in to the circuit so there are periods of work and periods of rest .
must not rest for too long
as they will not experience overload.
There should be a
variety of exercises
and activities within the circuit, which are carefully varied.
Exercise in the circuit are particularly aimed at developing certain skills that are vital in a particular activity.
These are usually used by games players where individual skills can be practised, such as passing a ball against a wall and dribbling in and out of cones in football or Basketball
Running the circuit
Circuits can be organised in different way:
for exercise (as many repetitions as possible), with rest period immediately after for recovery.
each particular station is labeled with the
exact number of repetitions
, without any time limit.
(strength and muscular endurance)
where the speed of a timed circuit and the
work-rest ratio changes
from circuit to circuit.
Muscle tone: where tension remains in a muscle, even when it is in rest.
Organising effective sessions
Some degree of weight training is likely to
benefit all performers.
Effective weight training involves the application of the principle of
so that the
are actually stressed to make them
adapt to become both bigger and stronger and therefore more efficient.
Two terms are particularly relevant to weight training :
The number of times you actually move the weight, so one biceps curl equals one repetition.
The number of times you carry out a particular weight activity, so each time you complete your repetitions of the bicep curl, you have completed one set.
The different ways you make use of repetitions and sets will affect the different aspects of strength . For example:
you would work on having 3 sets of 6 reps at near RM (
you would perform at least 3 sets of 20-30 reps at below 70% one rep max.
you would complete low number of reps at the rate over 70% of one rep max.
Types of weight training
Barbells, dumb-bells, kettlebells.
They are not limited to the specific movement
Placed on short and long bars,
Used to increase strength,
Can cause injury if not used correctly.
Not too expensive,
Easy to set up with bench as an addition,
Safety consideration, so always use partner (Spotter)
Specialist weight-training equipment-Resistance machines :
types of machines in gyms and leisure centres,
weights are fixed within the machines and selected by placing pins.
Much safer to use, provide stability and promote good technique.
This is where some
carried out at the higher altitudes (over 2000m)
air is less dense
oxygen levels are low with less pressure of oxygen
Using this method allows an actual physiological change to occur, which
increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
It is popular method used by
many footballers and rugby teams
An exercise carried out using a supply of oxygen.
This would primarily be aimed at
increasing general fitness
and would include a variety of
designed to increase CV fitness or strength in
specific muscles or muscle groups.
The main advantage of using this type of circuit is that you need little or
no specialist equipment
it can be carried out in a
standard school or sports hall.
We have covered the Principles of training (
) now you need to know the various Methods of training, for each Method you will need to know
the training is,
the training is done,
the training would be suited for and what benefits are they aiming to gain,
are the advantages and disadvantages of that type of training AND
How much weight a performer should be lifting can be calculated using their 1 RM.
RM stands for repetition maximum which is the heaviest weight performers are able to lift once.
The 1 RM needs to be calculated for each different weight training exercise.
Performers must take care when testing repetition maximums, as the weights involved are at the limit of their abilities.
There are range of
different types of training
that a sport performer can choose from to create a
well-planned training programme
scientific principles to improve performance.
When choosing the types of training to include in a training programme, it is important to
consider the component(s) of fitness
that are essential for success in the performer`s chosen sport or physical activity.
It is also important to
think about the intensity
at which performer should work to make fitness gains.
Rest and recovery
is also a critical part of all training programmes. It gives the body
time to repair any damage
caused during training or competition.
You need to follow some
when setting your circuit up and take into account some
dictates how big or complex the circuit can be,
also dictates what can be set at each station,
number of stations
can vary. Commonly, a circuit will contain 6 to 10/12 stations,
can be used to train a range of components of fitness,
large groups can train at the same time,
circuits are relatively easy to set up.
not really suitable for individual training,
large space is required,
technique can be affected by fatigue, increased risk of injury.
The majority of games players : footballers and rugby players.
Design a circuit, with between 6-10 stations, to develop cardiovascular endurance. You must include the following:
an appropriate exercises,
time or number of repetitions,
an appropriate recovery time.
Specialist equipment is not strictly necessary,
Ideal for begginer,
Ideal for someone training on their own.
Not suitable for groups or teams as it must be tailored to the individual,
Does not improve anaerobic fitness.
Endurance athlete including distance cyclist and marathon runners
GOOD FOR INEXPERIENCE PERFORMERS OR BEGINNERS.
GOOD FOR OVERALL FITNESS.
TRAINS AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC FITNESS.
CAN PUT A LOT OF PRESSURE ON THE BODY`S SYSTEMS, WHICH CAN LEAD TO INJURY IF THEY HAVE NOT BEEN CONDITIONED CORRECTLY.
BECAUSE HIIT IS A HIGH INTENSITY WORKOUT, YOUR RECOVERY
PERIOD BETWEEN TRAINING SESSIONS SHOULD BE AT LEAST 48 HOURS.
LONG HIIT BENEFITS GAMES PLAYERS AND MIDDLE-DISTANCE RUNNERS.
SHORT HIIT BENEFITS RACKET PLAYERS AND SPRINTERS.
No equipment needed.
Ideal for someone training on their own.
Helps a performer learn how to pace themselves and to understand their physical responses to changes in pace.
Not suitable for groups.
It is advance form of training because the performer has to be experienced to ensure the workout is intense but not too intense.
Need self-motivation and self-discipline to keep going.
Bad weather can affect this type of training.
Experience endurance athletes-marathon runners
Holding a stretch for 30 seconds.
During the stretch
muscles contract isometrically
, because they stay the same length throughout stretch.
It is important that correct technique
is used and you must be careful to
avoid overstretching as this could cause injury.
Concentrates on very specific component of fitness.
Concentrates on just one type of stretching.
Due to time constraints, muscles must be prioritize as you can not stretch them all fully
All sports, Gymnastics, Dance , Trampolining.
Can concentrate on specific muscle or muscle group if training needs equire this.
Can concentrate on power, strength or muscular endurance.
Requires specialist equipment.
Incorrect technique, especially when using free weights, can lead to injury.
A spotter is needed if you want to lift loaded free wights.
Sport requiring strength, power and muscular endurance, such as boxing and rock climbing.
High impact exercises that teach muscles to perform their maximum contractions faster-to be more powerful.
eccentric isotonic contraction
where the muscle contracts and lengthens
) is followed by a larger
concentric isotonic contraction
where the muscle contracts and shortens
Many of the exerciserequire no equipment.
Short and high intensity work out.
Plyometric exercises simulate the types of movement made in sport.
Three day for recovery.
Performer must have good levels of strength and muscular endurance before attempting plyometrics.
Sports requiring power:
sprinting, high jump and javeling.
It can be expensive to travel.
Fitness can be lost or reduced because it is difficult for performer to work at the same intensity as they do at sea level because there is less oxygen at high altitudes.
Performer can suffer from altitude sicknesscaused by shortage of oxygen. Symptoms: headaches, hyperventilation, dizzines, nausea and exhaustion.
The benefits gained are lost quickly.
It increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood because more red blood cells are created.
It can be difficult to complete training.
Fitness can be lost or reduced.
Benefits are lost quite quickly.
Poibility of suffering from altitude sickness.
Not suited for performers in anaerobic sports.
Endurance athletes and games players
Different physical activities require different training methods.
(a) Explain what is meant by ‘continuous training’.
(b) Explain why continuous training is an effective training method for a long distance runner.
(Total 4 marks)