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From garbage to energy

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by

Jimena Flores

on 1 April 2014

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Transcript of From garbage to energy

From garbage to energy
Problematic
Every mexican generates 770g of garbage every day (1). 62.2% of this wastes end in sanitary landfills; 25.3% in open dumps; 8.3% in controlled landfills; and 4,2% gets recycled (2); every day the amount of garbage is increasing and the different landfills and dumps keep growing and growing.

Statistics
According to INEGI, in Mexico we generate 86,343 tons of garbage everyday. (1)
In 2010, 52.4% of the garbage was organic garbage;16.8% was glass and plastic; 13.8% paper and cardboard; 13.6% was made of rubber, fabrics and other wastes; and 3.4% was metals. (2)

Switzerland is a great example of excellent waste disposal. Most of their wastes are separated and recycled but in the end they still have some solid wastes that can be of use. There are many wastes like food and cardboard that are made of organic material and can be use as fuel combustion. Power plants with this system can produce up to 20MW of electricity, and produce 50% less carbon emissions. Also the ashes can be sold as fertilizer or construction material. (3)
Process
Step 1
:
Wastes must be weighted and quality-checked at their arrival at an incineration plant.
Step 2:

The waste is then fed into the furnace.
Step 3
:
The temperature in the furnace is of around 1,000ºC. The only fuel needed is the waste inside the furnace and an oil burner that is used to start the furnace. The fuel gases rise upwards.
Step 4
: After everything is burned the material left is known as "slag". This slag is transported to be sorted and recycled.
Proposed Solution
Solid waste is a great source of biomass that can be use in various ways to produce energy. one of the most know application is the fermentation an the decomposition of the wastes to generate natural gas. This gas can be used as fuel to generate heat and energy. It has to be in Mexico City for the amount of garbage generated there.
Sofia Viladoms A01208897
Jimena Flores Beltrán A01201383
Cynthia Andrea García A01208796
Hector del Reguero Valle A0120780

Step forward on Switzerland
(1) INEGI.
Garbage
. [Online] Available from: http://cuentame.inegi.org.mx/territorio/ambiente/basura.aspx?tema=T [Accessed March 2, 2014].
(2) INEGI.
Conociendo México
. [Online] Aguascalientes, Mexico. INEGI; 2012. p. 50.
(3) The Swiss Confederation . Waste Managment . htt://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_pdfs/NationalReports/switzerland/waste.pdfp (accessed 03/03/14).

(4) Giula Simolo. How to use grabage to produce electricity . http://www.ecopedia.com/how-to/using-garbage-to-create-electricity/ (accessed 03/03/14).

(5) Avfall Sverige. Towards a greener fuTure wiTh swedish waste -To-energy The world’s besT example. http://www.vivamosmejorwalmartchile.cl/un-reciclaje-muy-eficaz-el-caso-de-suecia-y-su-falta-de-basura/ (accessed 4 march 2014)
Bibliography
The entity that generates more garbage is Mexico's city creating 19.7% of the total garbage per day. (1)
Background
The first major expansion of waste incineration plants happen around the 1970´s. However the first incinerators of waste disposals were designed in 1874. This process helps provide most of Europe´s energy needs. Several studies made in Europe have shown that the countries that have higher proportion of energy created form waste also have the highest proportion of recycling material. Some of the benefits of waste incineration apart form creating energy is the clearing of land wich was originaly used for . We would also be making something of our wastes other than just throwing them away. Waste incineration is a huge positive impact on the environment. (4)
Process
Step 5:
Inside the furnace water is circulated to steam. The greater the pressure and temperature of the steam the greater the potential of electricity production.
Step 6:
The steam is transported to the turbine which drives the generator.
Step 7:
The movement of the turbine is transformed into electrical power.
Step 8:
The steam is condensed into water again and is sent back to the furnace.
Step 9:
Fuel gases are later cleaned. The dust is first removed then the fuel gases are washed with water. Finally the fuel gases are cleaned with a catalytic converter. (5)
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