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IP 364: Module 2
Transcript of IP 364: Module 2
Methods and Methodology:
Review of Related Literature:
IP 364: MODULE 2
The Visitor and the Native in Folk and Polular Culture
Wives, Widows, and Workers
by Nadezna Ortega
CHAPTER 1: Pakauna/Introduction
Questions from the Class
Corazon Aquino, Imelda Marcos, and the Filipina "Other"
By Greta Ai-Yu Niu
Filipinas in Global & Local Politics
Imelda Marcos: The Iron Butterfly
Which People's Power?
return to the power of word, language, and memory of the Ilokano
reveals the power for a colonized subjectivity to begin decolonizing by the returning of the sources of liberation both from within and without, from the internal and external, the personal and social, familiar and the strange
a reasonable story of awareness of emancipation power of a decolonized subjectivity
1. Provide a voice
2. Cries against injustice and oppression and challenges
3. Highlight the power of and individual voice
4. Review related literature that will clarify and analyze the problem.
5. reviewing literature regarding Ilokanos and the violence that are subjected to as they move back and forth in various spaces of empire in the Philippines and Hawai‘i
6. layering of oppression, invisibility, and silencing that Ilokanos are subjected to through colonial education, nationalism and the racialization/homogenization
-the traditional Ilokano knowledge, culture, language, and identity that it faces are serious damages from colonial policies of control:
i. Through the establishment of colonial education based on the repression and subordination of traditional and indigenous knowledge with the perpetuation of lies of saving the Filipinos reinforced the injury of colonialism itself.
ii. Colonialism and the nationalization project have already resulted in the death of four languages in the Philippines while many more are endangered.
iii. Loss of our culture or we face severe and irreversible damages to our culture.
-discipline of history was validated by the Western academy
-Subaltern Studies criticizes History as an “elite history” which has deleted “the politics of the people.
Elite colonialist and bourgeois-nationalist elitism highlight elite achievements
-there were negations of indigenous views of history because it challenged and resisted the mission of colonization, also posed a threat to the foundation.
-Hegelian view: History is a totalizing discourse, a universal history, one large chronology, is about development, about self-actualizing human subject, can be told in one narrative, as a discipline is innocent, constructed around binary categories, is patriarchal.
To decolonize our past: it requires us to revisit, site by site, our history under Western eyes; tell stories
-Indigenous storytelling became a mode that colonized people to use to assert their own identity and the existence of their own history
“re-membering,” - speaking, and writing, we are attempting to respond to the consequences of
“dis-membering” - lose our connection with our community, land, mother tongue, culture, and identity
Research – Insider or Outsider?
-Linda Tuhiwai-Smith talks about in Decolonizing Methodologies:
-There are a number of ethical, cultural, political and personal issues that can present special difficulties for indigenous researchers who
-Work partially as insiders in their own communities and are often employed for this purpose
-Work partially as outsiders because of their Western education or because they may work across clan, tribe, linguistic, age and gender boundaries
-claiming an Ilokano identity:
1. Chose to acknowledge the indigenous knowledge and identity of your Ilokano ancestors and asserting an Ilokano identity that is dynamic of our homeland.
2. Ilokanos in the diaspora are severed from our homeland and disconnected from our ties to culture and identity
-Claiming an American identity would mean further silencing and making invisible the voices, presence, and claims of Indigenous People
-Filipino - introduced by the Spanish colonizers who claimed and named what is now the Philippines, Las Islas Filipinas, for and after King Phillip of Spain
> this term to distinguish Philippine-born Spanish individuals
-Indios (Indians) - Filipinos, from the original inhabitants of the Philippines
-Mestizos - mixed Spanish and Native ancestry
Tagalog elites were as the ruling class in the Philippines. They distinguish themselves from the rest of the Philippine population, they saw themselves as “civilized” with Western education, wealth, and exposure to European culture.
Identity and Conciousness
-Ilokanos – third largest ethno-linguistic group about the tagalogs and sebuanos, but largely have been ignored, but we make up the majority
-Before the Spanish rule, there wasn’t a place called the Philippines, the islands weren’t unified, but had a system of trade and political compacts with neighboring islands, especially with international trade.
-Ruy Lopez de Villalobos named the islands Las Islas Filipinas for King Phillip II
Filipinos – homogenize a heterogeneous group of people, languages, and identities rendered under a fixed and pure racial bloodlines.
-The creation of this identity started with: the violent conquest and pillaging of people into subservience.
-denied the identities and voices of a diverse multitude of people
Five streams of traditions
exorcism of alienness, act of adoption
Today’s native was yesterday’s vistor.
What does it consist of?
What forces produce it?
filipinos turned a vehicle that could accommodate half a dozen people into a vehicle that could fit at least 3 dozen people.
turned into a tricycle
Comfort or transportation more important?
addition to original materials
brings cultural and individual personality to the new vehicle.
“is the process of exorcising the alienness of the borrowed technology by bringing into it the familiar and social marks and features of Filipinicity thus giving the new creation a familiarity, a habitation and a name.
turning something into their own; turning the visitor into native
A History of Visitors and Natives
archaeology suggests man has been in the Philippine archipelago for some 750,000 years.
migrated from elsewhere (land, boat, etc.)
Barangay- village, district, or ward
immigrants brought original cultures, arts and technology
traditions handed down to each generation
The Aboriginal Traditions
no written records
the acts of the gods
the acts of the heroes
the acts of the people
literature was a performing art
The Islamic Traditions
10th century- chinese trade
coming of the Islam
monotheism, and the Koran
literature added to older traditions
The Hispanic Traditions
late 16th century
Spain came to establish
new form of government
new religion, Catholicism
christianity written and sung in public
new system of writing
not at first “Filipino Literature”; a visitor.
“sarswela” and “komedya”
The American Traditions
most of literary genres were already here at the end of the Spanish era in 1898.
Tagalog writers still wrote in their own preference.
The Neo-Nationalist Tradition
most forceful assertion through his works.
“Bayan Ko” by Jose Corazon de Jesus
rise in folkloristics and recording of oral literary traditions interests
• 1980s and 1990s, two women politicians of the Philippines were put under scrutiny.
Imelda Romualdez Marcos
Corazon Conjuangco Aquino
• Both women were most known for being part of the Philippines elite party and for being the widows/wives of two other political figures,
o Ex-President, Ferdinand Marcos
o Political leader, Benigno Aquino
• This overshadowed the work they did for the community and their contributions to the Philippines:
o Helped design policies for the U.S. military bases
o Encouraged foreign investments
o Most importantly: encouraged female sex workers
• Tourism is a lucrative industry in the PI
Women sex workers’ participated in one sector of the service-oriented tourism industry
Women workers also worked as oversea help/maids
Work of Filipinas and Filipina Americans played a crucial role in the future relationships of people participating in the Pacific Rim
• Decades of experience in politics, thought to one day be president after her term of “First Lady” ended
Thought to one day win by popular vote
Ran but then withdrew her candidacy not too long after in May 1998
• The Marcos family was thought to have embezzled 5 billion dollars from the treasury of the Phillipines during the dictatorship reign of her husband
• Especially questioned due to having a poor background and then Imelda being known for her expensive taste in fashion.
• “Filipino First Lady, who, like country appeared to be beautiful and welcoming, foreign but at the same time familiar.”
• “World’s most avid shopper”
• Known as the “Iron Butterfly” because of the many dresses she wore at appearances during her husband’s political campaign.
Dresses with huge “butterfly” sleeves made out of thick material, resembling the strength of iron
• Known as the woman with 3,000 pairs of shoes
Politically active family
Grew up in a wealthy household/elites
Went to private schools in Manila and college in the United States
o Ran for presidency in 1986
o Became the first and last female president of the Philippines
• Put down my Ferndinand Marcos for being “inexperienced in politics and for being a woman”
o Portrayed as a housewife who would clean up the mess the country was left in after the reign of Marcos
• Do this by using skills of thrift, efficiency and competence
o Promised to clean up the corruption left by Marcos
o Unable to fulfill all campaign promises
o Inherited a huge foreign debt of $29 Billion
• PI Continued to suffer economically, despite small improvements
Marcos v. Aquino
Marcos = obsessed with wealth, personal beauty, and attention
Aquino = saint-like
No speaking relationship between the two, ever.
Marcos calls her Aquino ugly because she doesn’t wear fancy dresses or lavish things as Marcos does.
Aquino believe that Marcos was involved in the assassination of her husband, Ninoy Aquino.
Filipinas who worked in sex industries or in domestic jobs abroad are subject to poor treatment or violent behavior by the employers, inhospitable laws, and lack of respect as human beings
General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality, Leadership and Action.
Began in October 1983 when 10,000 women protested against the Marcos government, martial law and declining economic prospects
Protests, mock trials, meetings, and discussions for many grass roots groups
Also takes cares of Filipinas who work abroad
o Workers working abroad
o Take care of all members of the family, cook, and clean the home. (Live in maid & babysitter)
o Filipina workers working abroad contribute almost $8 billion/year to the PI economy
• Typically older women with spouses & sometimes children
• Support not only themselves, but also their families back home
• May spend more than 10 years in host country
FILIPINA SEX WORKERS
o 1988: Excess of 250,000 US male nationals living in the PI
o 1990: About 2,000 military men on bases in PI, 55,000 native Filipina sex slaves working on those bases
• Clients would pay a “bar fine” for a “date” with the client
• Bar owner would get most of it and Filipina would get significantly less
o Women had to pay for their own licenses granting them the right to work in the “hospitality” industry
o Can also work on the streets but more vulnerable to assaults.
o Marcos and Aquino both represent different types of Asian femininity but do not represent the majority of women in the PI
• Marcos = sexuality but also ruthlessness and power
• Aquino = domesticity and religiosity
• Filipina migrants & sex slaves = on display and for purchase by military personal and international male sex tourists
• Connects local resistance with a large community of organizers, across national boundaries without the figurehead services of a Corazon Aquino or Imelda Marcos
Knowledge and Stories
Knowledge and Stories
Storytelling and oral histories are the ways in which knowledge, tradition, and culture have been passed down for generations in indigenous communities which still continues today.
These stories are embedded with the values and beliefs of that culture. These stories tell us about our cultures, our common history, and a grounded consciousness of who we are.
These stories along with the storyteller “serve to connect the past with the future, one generation with the other, the land with the people and the people with the story.
It is necessary to decentralize what we have been socialized to believe that there exists only a single “truth” and the way to the “truth” is through Western traditions.
Do not give into the “single story”.
Who has written and who has been writing about us?
Who has been given the authority to write about us?
Who has not been given the chance to write?
Who has been silenced?
Indigenous storytelling is never just about the act of telling stories:
Stories have become a vehicle for memories of the past to be retold in the present.
These testimonies then shapes the present because they give evidence to the ways in which indigenous peoples have resisted and survived.
They awaken voices of the past but more importantly they awaken voices of the present demanding to be heard and demanding social justice.
Mainstream history is suffering from a poverty of ideas and voices, it is critical to provide our own accounts, priorities, and our own point of views.
Form of self-reflection and writing that explores the researchers personal experience and connects this autobiographical story to wider, cultural, political, and social meanings and understandings.
In order to understand oneself, one must understand the relationship between the self and the social.
It is a self-reflective project that is liberating and urges the writer to examine his/her ascribed identities
Comes out of the research method first used in anthropology known as ethnography.
Ethnos means people, nation, and class while graph means to write.
Ethnography as a method utilizes participant observation to gather data in order to write about people and describe people.
As a research method, the focus can be broad-based that looks at the researcher’s whole life or narrowly-based that looks at certain aspects or specific moments in their lives which can be personal or emotional or not.
The word pakasaritaan means history and it is rooted in the word sarita which means story.
Pakasaritaan and sarita, history and story, have a symbiotic relationship where there exist a story in history and also a history in story.
Pushes the limits of story/narrative and articulates a vision about the need to trust what stories are and what they can do to approach the issues of language, memory, community, and truth.
Narrative is thus a way of exploration, never a means to arriving at something fixed and permanent, but means to revisiting the tentative nature of language, truth, meaning, and knowledge.
Two forms of knowledge production: resistance and insistence.
The need to resist the onslaught of the same knowledge propped up by the academia and the instruments of that academia, research included.
The insistence on the need to listen once again to the voice of the people, to the power of their word, and to the redemptive in their recollection, articulation, and expression of what they have come to witness.
Public school education in the Philippines is primarily inherited from the United States colonial period in the Philippines but also appropriated by the Filipino elites to push the nationalist agenda. It is a Euro-U.S. centric institution established during a specific era for a specific purpose and although it has been utilized by the nationalist agenda, it retained its previous curriculum and structure that privileges Western thought and histories.
The Philippine education system therefore pushes two agendas: one that is colonial and the second that of the nationalist/elite-centric.
In the Philippines there are over a hundred languages, which reflects the heterogeneous population. However, English, the language of the last (and some would say still current) colonial master is still colonizing majority of these languages.
In the Philippines, there is a disruption that affects this relationship as members of the population gather more exposure to the media, pop culture, and the educational system all of whom disproportionately utilize the Tagalog language, the English language, or a combination of both called Taglish.
The chosen languages became not only the languages of business and politics, but also the languages of the educational institution. Upon entrance in kindergarten or pre-school, the children of the Philippines are taught their alphabets in Tagalog and English.
After 333 years under the colonial rule of Spain, the Philippines found itself under the control of the United States.
The United States set forth policies, enacted a formal government, created infrastructures, and established an educational system.
These colonial policies is the installation of an economic system that kept the Philippine economy and Filipino people continually dependent on the U.S.
The complete control and exploitation of Philippine natural resources by the United States devastated the Philippine economy.
The state of poverty that the Filipinos were in drove Filipinos out of their own country in order to find work elsewhere. As a result, the Filipinos became a cheap and ready labor supply for America.
America was the land of promise early on during U.S. colonialism in the Philippines prior to Filipino immigration to the United States.
One of the ways in which this fantasy was perpetuated was by the introduction of new professions, travel opportunities, and educational opportunities in the United States, which opened up America’s landscape to the Filipino people which had already taken refuge in the imagination of the Filipino people long before the arrival of Filipinos into the United States.
The infrastructures, systems of education, and public health that America implemented in the Philippines were used to create Filipino subjects who were prime carriers of American culture.
Because of this system, it made it difficult for Filipinos to be proud of and to maintain their culture and language while being kept in a colonial state of mind where they were pressured and socialized to valorize the English language and American culture over their own.
The Visitor and the Native in Folk and Polular Culture