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Plastic Pollution

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by

Jerry Bao

on 14 May 2015

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Transcript of Plastic Pollution

Plastic in the Water
Plastic in Ecosystems
Plastic Pollution
Naaz H, Jerry B, Anthony L Pragya V, Allison M, Sean R
What is Plastic?
How is Plastic Manufactured?
How is Plastic Used?
Plastic in the Air
Typically human-made synthetic polymers
Malleable
Made with different densities
Plastic monomers are synthesized to create plastic
polymers
.
Example:
Propylene, Ethylene,
etc.
Creates
Polyethylene, Polypropylene,
etc.
Polyethylene
is used to create inexpensive plastic products.
Polyethylene terephthalate
is used to create bottles due to its ability to resist moisture.
Polypropylene
is used as textile and resistant to solvents (acids and bases).
Polymerisation
Polycondensation:
CH2
CH2
n
The formation of a
polymer
from
monomers
with
two functional groups
.
Different Types of Plastics
Aliphatic polymers

Heterochain polymers
Only contain linear carbon chains on their backbone chains.
Contain elements other than hydrocarbons, such as oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen. They may also contain benzene rings.
Plastic Pollution Overview
- Plastic is a necessity of industrialized lifestyle
- Low cost, low weight, and insulating properties
- Reduces food waste, improves transportation efficiency, is required for manufacturing essentials like health care equipment
- Over 300 million tons manufactured annually; only 10% recycled
- Estimated 7 million tons in the oceans per year
- Plastic disposal is biggest problem in plastic usage: visually unappealing and associated with health risks
CH2
CH2
n
n
Solving the Problem
Production and usage of biodegradable plastics
Cost is naturally a concern
Public education and awareness

Detrivores are unable to decompose plastic bonds.
Pacific Garbage Patch
Accumulation of plastic largely due to ocean gyres and the created centripetal force. There are five great garbage patches in total, the Pacific Garbage patch being closest to us.
Burning Plastics
- Burning halogenated plastics to dispose of them is dangerous
- Harmful dioxins produced; stay in tissues by dissolving in body fat; accumulate up food chain
CH3
CH2
CH2
CH3
Biological and Chemical
Physical and Biological
Chemical and Biological
- HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide) is common by-product of heating plastics. HCN shuts down cellular respiration.
C2H4 + O2
CO2 + H20
Combustion of Non-Halogenated Plastics
Combustion of polyethylene is less harmful...
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or TCDD
n
n
The most toxic dioxin:
...unless carbon monoxide is produced
Biodegradability of Plastics
Impact on Aquatic Ecosystems
Bibliography
http://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/everyday-myths/how-long-does-it-take-for-plastics-to-biodegrade.htm
http://www.livescience.com/33085-petroleum-derived-plastic-non-biodegradable.html
http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20140722-odd-objects-reveal-ocean-secrets
https://orionmagazine.org/article/polymers-are-forever/
http://info.brentwoodplastics.com/blog/bid/125095/Is-plastic-from-oil-What-is-plastic-made-from
http://plastics.americanchemistry.com/Education-Resources/Plastics-101/How-Plastics-Are-Made.html
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/463684/plastic/82469/Reinforcements#toc82471
http://www.worldwatch.org/global-plastic-production-rises-recycling-lags-0
http://plasticpollutioncoalition.org/research/references/
http://unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu/flow_02
http://www.breastcancerfund.org/clear-science/environmental-breast-cancer-links/plastics/
http://publishing.aip.org/publishing/journal-highlights/giant-garbage-patches-help-redefine-ocean-boundaries
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/states/polymers.html
http://plastic-pollution.org/
http://plasticpollutioncoalition.org/facts/#food-chain
http://www.nrdc.org/oceans/plastic-ocean/
http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2047
http://www.google.com/patents/US8513329
http://sfenvironmentkids.org/water/garbage_patch3.htm
http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/tsd/pcbs/pubs/effects.htm
http://www.epi-global.com/en/about-tdpa.php
http://marinedebris.noaa.gov/info/patch.html
http://inhabitat.com/19-year-old-student-develops-ocean-cleanup-array-that-could-remove-7250000-tons-of-plastic-from-the-worlds-oceans/
http://www.theoceancleanup.com/
http://www.theoceancleanup.com/fileadmin/media-archive/theoceancleanup/press/downloads/TOC_Feasibility_study_lowres_V2_0.pdf
http://www.theoceancleanup.com/blog/show/item/responding-to-critics.html
https://books.google.ca/books?id=a2YdBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA1139&lpg=PA1139&dq=Photic+zone+percentage+of+life&source=bl&ots=-wo50Rx_yb&sig=iVwWjFqNDiFGPokmSMhc0OpzHUE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=d8BUVePhFo61ogTUiICQDw&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Photic%20zone%20percentage%20of%20life%2090%25&f=false
http://www.adrift.org.au/map?lat=36.6&lng=141&center=-104.5&startmon=Jan


A gyre is caused by intersecting currents amassing into a larger one; these currents are a result of surface winds and earth's rotation moving mass amounts of water in the oceans.

The movement of wastes with the current on the surface of the water body impacts the aquatic lifestyle because 90% of aquatic life lives near the surface.
Assimilation
(Bio-magnification)
As the food chain goes up, organisms require more and more energy to supply their needs.
Simulation for Spread of Ocean Plastics
This also increases the intake of plastics in tertiary predators.
Plastic Affecting Animals
Spread of Plastic Pollution
Water current speeds in the North Pacific gyre (containing the great pacific garbage patch) can reach speeds of 1.3 m/s.
At this rate plastic garbage from the coast reaches the patch in about a month.
Incinerators
Most used plastic is sent to landfills or incinerators.
Incinerators spread toxic chemicals from burnt plastic into the air.
The Ocean Cleanup Foundation
Polyethylene
Ethylene
n
CH3
CH
CH2
Full transcript