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Modern: 1750 CE - 1900 CE

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Kat Skafidas

on 27 April 2014

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Transcript of Modern: 1750 CE - 1900 CE

Modern Era: 1750 CE - 1900 CE
French Revolution
July 14, 1789
; Beginning of the French Revolution
- French social classes:
1st Estate - Clergy, no taxes
2nd Estate - Nobility, little taxes
3rd Estate - Bourgeoisie, working class (everyone else), most taxes and least amount of property
Declaration of the Rights of Man
: Document that gave the French men their basic rights
Declaration of the
Rights of Women
; written by Olympe de Gouges but unfortunately, women receiving rights was too radical, she was
Signed the
Tennis Court Oath
; 3rd estate promised to meet and to create a fair constitution
Storming of the
- 800 protesters demand guns and ammunition, troops open fire, prison is stormed;
March of Versailles
Scramble for Africa
European countries take over and attempt to colonize and industrialize all of Africa
Ethiopia and Liberia were the only to independent countries
Berlin Conference: Carving up of Africa by European countries
Otto Van Bismark presided over it
Leopold II: King of Belgium that made Congo a colony for its rubber, using oppressive labor
Industrial Revolution
- making a profit, bourgeoisie, entrepreneurs
& Markets - Africa, India, SA for cheap labor
Raw Materials
- coal, iron
Labor Force
- urbanization, cities grow
Less family values, no health benefits, edu, building codes
Supportive Gov.
- hands-off approach for business dev.
Roads for transportation, etc
- total control of industry: gov. then had to step in
- natural ports for trade (irregular coastline)
Mass Production
- large amount of identical factory-made goods; production price goes down, quality goes down
Assembly Line - different repetitive job for each person; job specialization, leads to many cases of carpal tunnel
Working conditions
pre unions
and gov regulations:
Long hours, no breaks; child labor; unsanitary; harmful, dangerous machines; easily replaced if injured, coercive bosses giving low wages
Luddites - first unions
Haitian Revolution
A massive slave revolt led by former slave
Toussaint L'Ouverture

only successful slave revolt
in world history
Slaves, greatly abused, had widely outnumbered the slave owners and were
inspired by French Rev.
Renamed the country from Saint Domingue to Haiti and identified themselves with the original native inhabitants
independent black state
in the New World
Also declared
for all races and divided up plantations among small farmers
fear in slave owners
of the United States and Latin America
American Revolution
Qing Dynasty
Last imperial dynasty of China which was overthrown by revolutionaries
Spent majority of dynasty trying to stay isolated to
keep western influence out
Boxer Rebellion
: Secret society called the Society of Harmonious Fists (Boxers) aimed at ridding of China's "foreign devils" (Europeans, Christians); Suppressed by GB
Opium Wars
: Two wars fought between Britain and China after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods, especially opium
Britain encouraged opium trade, making Chinese highly addicted to the drug
China lost both wars and was forced to
Unequal Treaties
giving other countries control of certain areas in China (
Sphere of Influence
Open Door Policy
: proposed by the US under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
Unification of Germany
1864-1871 unified under
Otto van Bismarck
Uses German
(pride in culture) provoked by the Napoleonic wars
Result is "
the worship of the state
State not just agency that regulates relationships, but a spiritual corporation
Nationalism was an integrative force; Bismarck uses reactionary nationalism to create
modern nation-state

Huge German power
in the center of Europe causes imbalance of power; threatened EU peace
Czarist Russia
Absolute monarchy
; mostly refused political reforms
Developed in
from the rest of Europe, maintained its feudal economy (serfs)
Lavish lifestyle of the nobility class, everyone else suffered in poverty as

Serfs not free until 1861 by
Alexander II
, the only radical Russian czar who made extensive political reforms geared towards modernizing
Romanov family will rule until Czar Nicholas II's weak rule, leading to the
Bolshevik Revolution
Modernization of Turkey
(Ataturk) limited religious influence in daily affairs
Decreed separation of religion and state
Institution of secular law codes and schools
Secularity gave women more rights
Receive the right to vote in 1934
Forbidden to wear the Muslim veil
Banned red fez head ware
Courts govern marriage and inheritance
Imposed European model family names
Replaced Arabic script with Turkish alphabet
Sponsored industrialization
Radical changes angered conservative Turks, especially devout Muslims
Encourages internal instability
Sepoy Rebellion
India's failed attempt at driving out Western influence (1857-1858)
End of British East India Company
Sepoys rebelled against the British government after the discovery that they were
using cow fat in their guns

Disgrace; cows are sacred in India
The East India company brutally suppressed the rebellion
British government dissolved the East India company and took over the
rule of India directly
Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution
A major shift in thinking between 1500 and 1700 in which modern science emerged as a new way of gaining knowledge about the natural world
Scientific Method evolves
Progress for humanity could be achieved only by rooting out the wrongs left by superstition, religious fanaticism, ignorance, and outmoded forms of justice
Congress of Vienna
The meeting between the countries that defeated Napoleon to make sure France never got as powerful as it was with Napoleon as its leader
Redrew map of Europe
Restored the balance of monarchies and power that existed before Revolution (legitimacy)
Stalls WWI for 100 years
Opening of Japan
Matthew Perry
Forced Japan with warships and weapons into opening its ports to trade (Treaty of Kanagawa)
Brought western influence to Japan while showing American might
Meiji Restoration
: followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate
Japan ended isolation and began to industrialize and modernize,
Japan won
Russo-Japanese War

Showed Russia's weakness and proved Japan's rising strength from Meiji
Seen as possible threat to Europeans, especially by WWI
The White Mans Burden
Europeans believed it was "their duty" to "civilize" natives
Countries of Influence
Great Britain -> South Africa, India
United States -> Philippines
France -> Vietnam, Mali, Cambodia
Belgium -> Congo
Japan -> Korea
Everyone -> China
Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism; "survival of the fittest"
Bourgeoisie: capitalists; Proletariat: working class
Thomas Malthus
first person to look at humans as animals
population will outplace the food supply
war, disease, famine control the population
poor should have least children (when they have the most)
David Ricardo
Iron Law of Wages - work better when there's higher pay
Higher pay -> more children -> labor surplus -> wage decr.
Utilitarians (Jeremy Bentham + John Stuart Mill)
Goal: Greatest good for greatest number
Gov. must provide social safety net (soc. services/security)
Political Parties Develop
economic system based on private ownership of capital, companies choices, goal is to make profit to reinvest in company
: economic system based on state ownership of capital
: theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state
Adam Smith
Laissez-faire (gov is hands-off)
Law of Supply + Demand: profit depends on demand of people
Law of Competition: choice, no monopolies; +quality -price
Private Ownership: free markets, buyers and sellers together
Abundance and variety driven by profit motive
Karl Marx
Wrote The Communist Manifesto & Das Kapital (Marxism)
Class struggle: owners vs. workers (bourgeoisie vs. proletariat)
Public ownership, no variety, no competition
Government controls everything; "equality" (just poor quality)
Taxation for healthcare and education
French Results
Committee of Public Safety
12 man committee
only way liberty could be achieved was for men to lose their heads
led by Maximilian Robespierre
Reign of Terror
Period lead by
, leader of Committee of Public Safety (executed in 1794);
Time when many people died - supposed to be about liberty, but just bloodshed
Napoleonic Code Napoleon's comprehensive laws that established his systems of "fairness" in France; women lost rights
Began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776
Inspired by Enlightenment writers like
John Locke
life, liberty, property
separation of powers
free speech
American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people
Democracy: protect the rights of citizens
Inspired future global revolutions in Haiti, France, Russia, South America, Africa, Asia
Agricultural Revolution
Production of food rose dramatically
such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster
Crop rotation
- small land for one crop
Enclosure Movement
- rich farmers bought out small farms
Small farmers out of jobs
Farmers then have to work in
Before: limited supply, merchant handles step by step, expensive, repaired everything
Factory System
: one place for all the steps to making a product
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