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Is formative assessment and/or summative assessment more be

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Chelsie Morrow

on 26 February 2014

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Transcript of Is formative assessment and/or summative assessment more be

Is formative assessment and/or summative assessment more beneficial to special education, or neither?
What is Formative Assessment?
Formative Assessment (during)-or diagnostic testing is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures employed by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.
Examples of Formative Assessments
When incorporated into classroom practice, the formative assessment process provides information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are still happening. The process serves as practice for the student and a check for understanding during the learning process. The formative assessment process guides teachers in making decisions about future instruction. Here are a few examples that may be used in the classroom during the formative assessment process to collect evidence of student learning.
The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark.

Some of the instructional strategies that can be used formatively include the following:
Examples of Summative Assessments
Summative assessments are given periodically to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know. Summative assessment at the district/classroom level is an accountability measure that is generally used as part of the grading process. The list is long, but here are some examples of summative assessments:
Presented by: Shamela Russell, Jennifer Bell, Tamarkis Taylor, and Chelsie Morrow
• Observations
• Questioning
• Discussion
• Exit/Admit Slips
• Learning/Response Logs
• Graphic Organizers
• Peer/Self Assessments
• Practice Presentations
• Visual Representations
• Kinesthetic Assessments
• Individual Whiteboards
• Laundry Day
• Four Corners
• Constructive Quizzes
• Think Pair Share
• Appointment Clock
• As I See It

• Criteria and goal setting
• Observations
• Questioning strategies
• Self and peer assessment
• Student record keeping

What is Summative Assessment?
• State assessments
• District benchmark or interim assessments
• End-of-unit or chapter tests
• End-of-term or semester exams
• Scores that are used for accountability for schools (AYP) and students (report card grades).

Pros and Cons for Formative Assessment
• Not always graded, taking the anxiety of test taking away from students.
• Teachers can check for understanding and determine if he or she can move forward with instruction, or take a step back to review a particular concept again, for the benefit of the student.
• Teachers have little to no reteaching to do at the end of a unit, because the majority of the issues with mastery of the concept are handled before the summative assessment.
• Allows teachers to adjust instruction quickly, as deemed necessary, as learning is in progress.
• Serves as practice for students, and they are able to get assistance along the way.
• Forms a more detailed understanding of the student’s abilities.
• Use data from formative assessments to help the student master the curriculum and identify strengths and weaknesses.
• Very easy to implement in instruction.
• Teachers can evaluate their own performance.

• Some teachers fear that they will not have time to finish the lesson due to having to implement formative assessments during instruction time.
• Some teachers rush through units in order to complete it, and this causes students to lack understanding and mastery of the concepts within that unit.
• Because teachers rush through units, students perform poorly on end of the unit assessments.
• Some teachers may not be properly trained and lack professional development in formative assessment, therefore not using it effectively.
• Students may not take formative assessments seriously since there are either not graded, or hold the same weight as summative assessments.
• Can be time consuming as it requires significant and ongoing dedication from the teacher to sustain.

Pros and Cons of Summative Assessment
• Provides motivation for students to study and pay attention in class, especially as students get older and grades become more important.
• Serves as insight to teachers in terms of assessment scores, and whether or not the students mastered the concept.
• Can test large numbers of students
• Can be adopted and implemented quickly

• Reflect so closely on teacher performance
• “Teaching to the test.”
• Not always the most accurate reflection of learning for students.
• Summative assessments that use multiple choice may unfairly disadvantage students who are non-native speakers with language and cultural barriers; may not understand questions that are asked, or the answers that coincide with the questions.
• May be difficult to determine what changes in instruction need to be made.
• May be difficult to receive results in a timely manner.

The key is to think of summative assessment as a means to gauge, at a particular point in time, student learning relative to content standards.
Is assessment more beneficial for General Education or Special Education?
General Education
Special Education
Addresses standard-based goals
Early intervention
A teacher's tool for motivation
Diagnostic and screening purposes
Determining placement and LRE
Addresses IEP goals
Legal documentation

Provides data for documentation
Monitors progress
Checks for mastery
Drives instruction and planning

What do YOU think?
Does formative or summative
assessment carry more weight for special education, or neither?
General Education and Special Education

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