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Introduction to Lean for Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, June 2014

from the University of St Andrews Lean Team

Lean Team

on 16 July 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Lean for Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, June 2014

Introduction to Lean
The St Andrews Lean Team
Projects and Outcomes
Our Process
The right environment
Quad of Aims
Current State Mapping
'If you can see it,
you can fix it'
Ideas Generation
Action List
Interim State - Future State
Continuous Improvement
Respect for People
Student Status Letters
Estates Job Tracking
Finance Accounts Payable
Working on
The right people continuously searching

for the simplest and smoothest process

in order to meet customer needs

a diet
a computer thing
a silver bullet
just about the "process"
Lean is ...
... and Lean is not ...
2 Fundamentals
Maximise Value
Non-Value Adding
but necessary
8 Wastes
As the customer sees it
Only do that which adds value for the customer
Understand all work as a process
Create smooth flow
Respond to Pull
Give your customer what they need
When they need it
Not what, or when, is convenient to you
Aim for
Exam diet ... or continuous assessment?
Expenses as you go ... or monthly?
Nothing happens in isolation (or shouldn't!)
Does the left hand know what the right hand is doing?
To volunteer or not?
5 Principles
Not an artificial target
Not 'that will do'
Not 'that's what others are doing'
Aien Aristeuein 'ever to excel'
The University of St Andrews
Project Team issues:
Impact of staffing levels (Is this just a way to cut jobs?)
Lack of follow through from Management
Timesheets – account for 36.25 hpw - why do we need them?
General concern of buy-in from peers
Lean Change Projects
The way we work is ...
Library Cataloguing
Senior Management championship
Action orientated
skilled people
Critical Success Factors for Lean in Universities
1. Continuous Improvement
2. Respect for People
Supported by Management
Purposefully enjoyable
Builds relationships
Challenges constructively
Safe ... no idea is a bad idea
Involves Students
Key objective:

Reduce time taken to log invoices on finance system

Key outcomes:

1. All invoices logged within 24 hours of receipt rather than batched to meet weekly schedule
2. Dramatic reduction in inquiries from suppliers, Schools and Units about unpaid invoices
3. Happy suppliers, Schools and Units
4. Fewer payment runs (data told us we were running 2.3 per week instead of 1 per month!)
5. Savings of 1 staff member's time as no longer required to sort and batch invoices or answer the same volume of calls or emails (£26,000 per year).
Key objective:

Eliminate backlog of uncatalogued books and DVDs

Key outcomes:

1. Hard copy book cataloguing time reduced from 4 months to 2 days
2. DVD cataloguing time down from 2 years to 2 days
3. Shelves freed for use elsewhere
4. More natural light entering work areas
5. Significant reduction of stress among staff
6. Dramatically increased Teamwork within cataloguing team
7. Happy students
Key objective:

Reduce time taken to process letters confirming that students are enrolled at the University (required by e.g. banks, local Council)

Key outcomes:

1. Letters produced by 1 staff member within 2 minutes of being requested, rather than being passed through several hands and ready for collection by students in 7 to 10 working days
2. Process time reduced from 31 to 2 minutes
3. Much happier students
4. Saving of 0.5 fte (£13,000 per year)
Senior Manager Sponsorship
Line Manager commitment
Exist to help the University:
To become the best it can be
Focus its energies on Teaching and Research
Develop a culture of continuous improvement and respect for people
50+ five-day rapid improvement events
15+ four-day rapid improvement events
20+ three-day rapid improvement events
Numerous smaller scale change events
Authority to act
We require:
Continuous Improvement
The internal and external environments are always changing

Standing still means going backwards

Everything can and must get better
Looking at your work process to improve them


Never ending
People are our most powerful asset
Nothing works without people
We can’t do everything ourselves
We do not know everything
Because we’re all different
Process is all about how people behave
• Involve staff at all levels in decision making
• Not just managers
• Frontline staff know what works well and what needs improvement

• Ask for and value the views of others

• Create an environment where values are more than words on a website

• Respect does not necessarily mean agreement or compromise
Respect for People
Toyota’s representation:

"... make every effort to understand each other, take responsibility and do our best to build mutual trust ...

... stimulate personal and professional growth, share the opportunities of development and maximize individual and team performance."
Lean in a nutshell
Project Outcomes
PC and Printer provision/access resolved during Lean project
Everyone knows what is going on
Immediate saving of 4.5 FTE (£135,000) - And, NO job losses
Estates effectively get 6 additional tradesmen - At NO cost
Jobs sourced and closed electronically from next working day
Elimination of paper time sheets from next working day
Process time down from over 4 hours to 21 minutes
Elapsed time reduced from 44 to 14 days (Receipt to closing of job)
From PCs to mobile devices predicted to save further 1.5 FTE (£45,000)
Estates can start to move from reactive to proactive maintenance
Within the University
Putting the new process into place

Begins before the RIE is over

Takes time

Not always easy


Actions completed on time

Barriers to progress overcome

Enthusiasm maintained

Momentum maintained

Issues dealt with immediately

Reviews of administration processes,

School of Languages, Literatures and Cultures, University of Edinburgh
Key Objectives:

Create efficient School administration processes and free up academic staff time

Processes involved:

Tutorial allocation
Records management
Student handbooks
Coursework submission

Key outcomes:

1. Consistent and efficient processes across all 5 subject areas
2. Documented and readily accessible student handbooks and admin processes
3. Staff relationships and teamwork greatly enhanced
4. No 'single points of failure'
5. Consistent service levels provided to academics
6. Academic staff time released to focus on teaching and research
Library Shelving Process, University of Lincoln
External to the University
MSP enquiries process, Scottish Parliament
Key objective:

A consistent, transparent and documented process that will deliver high quality enquiry responses

Key outcomes:

1. Enquiries answered in the right place with the right level of resource
2. Consistent process for enquiries
3. Consistency in information added to the database
4. Accurate management information to aid workforce planning and management reporting
Key objective:

A shelving process where books and DVDS are returned to the right space on the right shelf and in the most efficient and timely manner

Key outcomes:

1. A documented book and DVD shelving process that is:
Responsive to peak return periods
Consistently followed
2. Staff capacity and roles meet shelving demands
3. All books and DVDs placed in the right space on the right shelf as soon as possible
4. Significant reduction on the number of ‘lost’ and ‘missing’ books and DVDs
5. Activity reports on demand
W. Edwards Deming
October 14, 1900 – December 20, 1993
1950s: Brought Statistical Process Control & Quality Control to Japanese Manufacturing
"In God we trust; all others must bring data"
Business Consultant
Walter A. Shewhart
March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967
Physicist, Engineer, Statistician
What can statistical practice, and science in general, learn from the experience of industrial quality control?
Introduced statistical process control
Henry Ford
July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947
Developed mass production of the automobile
"Any customer can have a car painted any colour that he wants so long as it is black"
Adam Smith
June 5, 1723 – July 17, 1790
Cited as the father of modern economics and capitalism
"division of labour"
Philosopher and Academic
To take an example, therefore, from a very trifling manufacture; but one in which the division of labour has been very often taken notice of, the trade of the pin-maker; a workman not educated to this business (which the division of labour has rendered a distinct trade), nor acquainted with the use of the machinery employed in it (to the invention of which the same division of labour has probably given occasion), could scarce, perhaps, with his utmost industry, make one pin in a day, and certainly could not make twenty.

But in the way in which this business is now carried on, not only the whole work is a peculiar trade, but it is divided into a number of branches, of which the greater part are likewise peculiar trades. One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations; to put it on, is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them.

I have seen a small manufactory of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day.

There are in a pound upwards of four thousand pins of a middling size. Those ten persons, therefore, could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day.

But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day; that is, certainly, not the two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four thousand eight hundredth part of what they are at present capable of performing, in consequence of a proper division and combination of their different operations.
Sakichi Toyoda
February 14, 1867 – October 30, 1930
Founder of Toyota Industries
Developed "jidoka", autonomous automation
The five whys
Inventor and Industrialist
Eiji Toyoda
September 12, 1913 - September 17, 2013
Took US automotive mass production methods to Toyota ... with a twist
The Toyota Way, or Toyota Production System
Taiichi Ohno
February 29, 1912 - May 28, 1990
Author of the 'Toyota Production System'
7 wastes, Just in Time, Kaizen, Kanban, Poka-Yoke
Womack and Jones
Brought the Toyota Production System into popular thought
"Lean", 5 principles
Continue to lead Lean Thinking
Academics and Authors
(and Roos)
The U S A
But nothing is new...
Frank George Woollard
September 22, 1883 - December 22, 1957
"A pioneer in flow production in the British motor industry in the mid-1920s ... comparable to Taiichi Ohno ... architect of Toyota's production system."
Mechanical Engineer
UG Prospectus
Ethics Committee
Gift Administration
Re-energising the Website
Music Centre Database
Sportswear ordering
Open Access
Current Work
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