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Unit 2 AOS 1 CH7 Determinants: Prenatal Health and Human Development

VCE HHD Unit 2 2014 (Chapter 7)
by

Rachel Weiss

on 16 July 2015

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Transcript of Unit 2 AOS 1 CH7 Determinants: Prenatal Health and Human Development

The determinants of health and individual human development during the prenatal stage
Determinants of health and individual development during the prenatal stage of the lifespan: BIOLOGICAL
Genetics
An unborn baby begins life as a single cell containing the genetic information passed down from the mother and father. This information dictates much of the individual human development that occurs throughout the prenatal stage and throughout life.

The genes that a child inherits from their biological parents have a significant impact on the child’s health and individual human development. Genes are the blueprint of the body because they control growth, development and how the body functions.



Determinants of health and individual development during the prenatal stage of the lifespan: BEHAVIOURAL
The behavioural determinants that impact on prenatal health and development are related to the behaviours and choices of the parents, both before and during pregnancy. Examples include maternal nutrition status, parental smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy, and vaccination.
Alcohol use during pregnancy
Alcohol can cause problems for women even before pregnancy because it may interfere with fertility. Therefore women who are trying to fall pregnant should limit their consumption of alcohol or stop it altogether.
The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can cause significant harm to the unborn child. When alcohol is consumed by a pregnant woman, it crosses the placenta from the mother’s blood to the baby’s blood.
This can result in
foetal alcohol syndrome
The determinants of health and individual human development are important during the prenatal stage because they significantly influence the health and development of both the pregnant woman and her unborn baby.

How effectively the body functions, the lifestyle choices made by parents, the physical environment in which parents live and social determinants such as the education of parents can have an effect on health and individual human development during the prenatal stage.
Key knowledge
1.4 determinants that have an impact on health and individual human development during the prenatal stage of the lifespan, including at least one from each of the following:
-
biological,
such as genetics
-
behavioural,
such as maternal nutrition prior to and during pregnancy, parental smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy, and vaccination
-
physical environment
, such as tobacco smoke in the home and access to healthcare
-
social
, such as parental education, parental income, parental health and disability and access to healthcare

1.5 determinants that act as risk and/or protective factors in relation to one health issue such as spina bifida, low birth weight, foetal alcohol syndrome or gestational diabetes

1.6 government, community and personal strategies and programs designed to promote health and individual human development of pregnant women and unborn children.
Key Skills

- explain the determinants of health and individual human development and their impact during the prenatal stage of the lifespan using relevant examples

- describe a specific health issue affecting the prenatal stage of the lifespan and draw informed conclusions about personal, community and government strategies and programs to optimise prenatal health and development.
Task
In small groups, brainstorm examples impacting prenatal development:
- biological
- behavioural (eg maternal nutrition)
- physical environment (eg tobacco smoke in the home)
- social (such as parental education)
Share your brainstorm!


- rate and timing of development in the uterus

- whether the unborn baby is male or female

- development of genetic conditions such as haemophilia

- development of chromosomal abnormalities including Down syndrome.

An unborn baby’s genetic make-up determines:
Sometimes the genes for certain genetic conditions are already present in the mother or father and can be passed on to the children. These conditions are called
inherited conditions.

Examples include cystic fibrosis and haemophilia.
GENETIC CONDITIONS
Task
- you will be allocated a genetic condition
- from your text, you are to produce notes summarising the condition
What is it? What causes it? What does it mean?


- you will then be put into pairs or small groups to share your summary
Chromosomal Abnormalities
Abnormalities during the creation of sperm and ova can cause a range of conditions in the unborn baby.
Most often, these conditions arise as a result of too many or too few chromosomes.

A common chromosomal abnormality is 'trisomy'
- there are three copies of a specific chromosome (instead of the usual two).
- often, embryo with a trisomy will not survive (miscarriage)
- miscarriage often occurs in early stages of pregnancy (often before the woman realises she is pregnant)


in your workbook, copy a summary of
increasing risk of trisonomy with age
The risk of trisomy abnormalities increase with the age of the mother.
Chromosomal Abnormalities
In your workbook, list and describe common chromosomal abnormalities
Workbook task:

7.1 Test your Knowledge
This was holiday homework - see me to check off completed!
Ensuring a healthy balanced diet prior to becoming pregnant is important for preparing the body for the demands of carrying a baby.
A woman’s nutritional status during pregnancy is dependent on the nutritional reserves that are built up in her body prior to conception.
Women who have nutritional deficiencies prior to conceiving a child are likely to have these deficiencies during pregnancy, particularly as the body faces additional nutritional demands because of the growing baby.
MATERNAL NUTRITION
It is particularly important that women consume the required amount of folate, iron and calcium prior to and during pregnancy.
Create a summary of these nutrients (relevant to maternal nutrition) in your workbook
Determinants?


What are the (4) determinants of health and individual human development?

What does each refer to?


Smoking during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for a number of conditions for both the mother and her unborn baby.

Tobacco smoke contains thousands of chemicals, and acts to reduce oxygen flow to the placenta and exposes the developing foetus to numerous toxins.
Parental smoking during pregnancy
Maternal smoking increases the risk of a range of health and developmental conditions of the unborn baby including:

- spontaneous abortion
- ectopic pregnancy
- prematurity
- complications of the placenta
- birth defects
- lung function abnormalities
- respiratory conditions
- perinatal mortality
According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012), there is evidence that the more cigarettes a mother smokes, the higher the risk of poor birth outcomes.
Discuss in pairs: Why might this be?
Foetal alcohol syndrome
A foetus that is severely affected by foetal alcohol syndrome is at risk of dying before birth.
The alcohol may harm the development of the nervous system of the foetus, including the brain. It may also narrow the blood vessels in the placenta and umbilical cord, thereby restricting blood supply to the foetus.
Case Study
"Please don't do what I did, pleads mother who drank"
The Age, 22/4/07
Case study review
1. What are the possible effects of foetal alcohol syndrome?
2. What made Ms Russell seek medical advice regarding her son?
3. Why is Ms Russell lobbying for national alcohol guidelines to be changed so that women are advised to avoid all alcohol while pregnant?
Drug use during pregnancy
Drug use during pregnancy may have a significant effect on the health and individual human development of the foetus. Some medications or drugs will cross the placenta and potentially harm the unborn child. Side effects may include withdrawal symptoms, developmental delay, intellectual disability, birth defects, premature birth and stillbirth. The types of drugs that may be harmful include:

medicines (e.g. some prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines, herbal remedies or nutrition supplements)

tobacco and alcohol

caffeine

illegal drugs (e.g. cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines)

other substances used as inhalants (e.g. glue or aerosols).
The potential for harm to the unborn child depends on a range of factors including:

- the type of drug being consumed

- how the drug is taken

- the amount taken

- how often it is taken

- whether the drug is used alone or in combination with other drugs

- the response of the baby to the drug

- the gestational age of the unborn baby

- the level of health of the mother.
Table 7.3 outlines the possible effects of drug use on the health and individual human development of the unborn baby.
Record 5 things you find interesting from this table in your workbook
Vaccination
Vaccination plays an important role in reducing the spread of many conditions in Australia. Even though over 90 per cent of the population are up to date with their vaccinations, most vaccine preventable diseases still occur in Australia.
The prenatal stage of development is particularly susceptible to many of the effects of vaccine preventable diseases.
Specific diseases and their possible impact on the unborn baby include:
rubella
— can cause defects in the brain, heart, eyes and ears of the baby. It also increases the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth

chickenpox
— can cause defects in the brain, eyes, skin and limbs of the baby

m
easles
— increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth or stillbirth

mumps
— increases the risk of miscarriage

hepatitis B
— can be passed on to the baby during birth. The mother and baby can also become carriers of hepatitis B (when they have been infected and the virus has not been cleared from their body).

influenza
— increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth or stillbirth, and increases the risk of severe illness and death in the mother

whooping cough
— can cause pneumonia, seizures, conditions affecting the brain and the death of a baby
Workbook: Test your knowledge 7.2
This was holiday homework, see me to check off
Determinants of health and individual development during the prenatal stage of the lifespan: physical environment
Aspects of a pregnant woman’s physical surroundings can impact on the health and development of her unborn baby.
Factors within the physical environment that can impact on the unborn baby include tobacco smoke in the home and access to health care.
Tobacco smoke in the home increases the risk of passive smoking among pregnant women.
Passive smoking means breathing in other people’s tobacco smoke.

Tobacco smoke cools quickly which prevents it from rising. As smoke is heavier than air, it tends to hang in mid-air rather than be dispersed into the atmosphere. This increases the amount of second-hand smoke people breathe as it is concentrated in the lower half of the room.
Tobacco smoke
For pregnant women who live with one or more smokers, the home can be source of exposure to second-hand smoke.
Rates of tobacco smoke in the home have declined in the last decade,
In 2010, more than three-quarters (77 per cent) of Australians lived in homes where no-one regularly smoked,. However, 5 per cent of non-smokers were exposed to smoke from another resident at home at least once a day (AIHW, 2012).
- given the exposure rates applying to all non-smokers, it is reasonable to assume that some pregnant women would be exposed.
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke can contribute to the same health and development effects as maternal smoking including:

spontaneous abortion
ectopic pregnancy
prematurity
complications of the placenta
birth defects
lung function abnormalities
respiratory conditions including asthma
perinatal mortality.
Access to Healthcare
Prenatal health care (also called antenatal care) is an important part of pregnancy and there is a strong relationship between regular prenatal health care and positive health outcomes for both mother and baby. The purpose of prenatal health care is to monitor the health of the mother and baby, monitor growth of the baby, provide health education and advice to the mother, identify any risks to the mother and baby, and provide medical interventions if necessary.
Geographical factors such as the location of relevant services can impact on a woman’s ability to access prenatal health care. Many women in rural and remote areas struggle to access health services during pregnancy due to the time taken to reach them. As a result, the health of both mother and baby can be compromised.
Why wouldn't you have health care?


1. How many children are killed worldwide by whooping cough?
2. How long until a newborn can be immunized?
3. What trial method is discussed in the video?
4. What is the 'cocooning' method?

Whooping cough
Vaccination during pregnancy
n 2009, two-thirds (65 per cent) of women attended at least one antenatal visit before 14 weeks gestation, although 11.9 per cent of women did not receive antenatal care until after 20 weeks.

Around 80 per cent of women in major cities and inner regional areas in New South Wales, South Australia and the Northern Territory received antenatal care in the first 14 weeks of pregnancy, compared with 73.7 per cent of women residing in remote and 53.1 per cent of women in very remote areas.
The stats...
Complete Case Study 7.3

"Spare a thought for Rural mums on Mothers Day"
Complete 7.3 (1-4)
Determinants of Health and Individual Human Development during the prenatal stage: Social
Once fertilisation has occurred, unborn babies rely on their mother to achieve optimal health and development during the prenatal stage.

The society in which the mother lives and the social factors that impact on her life, will also contribute significantly to the health and development of her unborn baby.
Social factors include parental education, parental income, parental health and disability, and access to health care.
You will each be allocated to one of four groups. Each group will prepare a brief presentation of their allocated topic to share with the class.
You are to use your text book and one other resource (minimum) to prepare.
‘Social factors often influence the behaviours of parents which, in turn, impact on the health and development of unborn babies’

Write a response to this statement.
Complete 7.4 (Q1-3)
Full transcript