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Going back to the roots...

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Kristy Phillips

on 19 August 2015

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Transcript of Going back to the roots...

There are specific rules about when and how to use punctuation. It does not just go whenever you "take a breath," or wherever you feel like putting one.
Writing Conventions
Fragments and phrases, complete clauses and combining clauses

The CAHSEE will not directly ask you about "parts of speech," but let's review our grammar roots.
Noun: person, place, or thing

Verb: action word

Adjective: word that describes the noun

Adverb: word that describes a verb

A comma is the simplest way to separate ideas in a sentence. It has many uses. Here are a few:
1.Between two independent clauses (with a conjunction)
ex: I love dogs
but I hate cats.

2.To separate items in a list
ex: I love apples
and watermelons.

3.To set off appositives
ex: The girl
, the one I was telling you about earlier,
just walked in the door.

use a colon after an independent clause and before a list
ex: I like all kinds of outdoor activities: rock climbing, surfing, roller-blading, skiing, and cycling.
Do NOT use it like this: I like to: rock climb, surf, and roller blade.
use a colon after an independent clause and before an explanation
Use ellipses (…) to show omitted words.
*Typically used when quoting long quotes from a text

“The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched--they must be felt with the heart.”  ~Helen Keller

“The best and most beautiful things in the world...must be felt with the heart.”  ~Helen Keller

*P.S. This is not an example of a long quote, just an example of how to use an ellipses
use a semicolon to combine two closely related independent clauses (complete sentences)
Easy way to remember it:

Complete sentence
complete sentence
ex: It rained all afternoon; we managed to have our picnic anyways.
use a semicolon to separate items of lists that already have commas
ex: I've been to Austin, Texas; Honolulu, Hawaii; New York, New York; and San Francisco, California.)
Going back to the roots...
Writing conventions

Sentence construction (e.g. parallel structure, subordination, placement of modifiers, tense consistency)
About 15 questions test your understanding of grammar and your knowledge of...
Mechanics of punctuation (e.g. semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphens).
....review continued...

pronoun: a word trying to take the place of a noun (he, she, we, them, him, her)

conjunction: conjoins words, phrases, and clauses (and, or, but)

preposition: shows relationship of one word to another (often, shows POSITION: on, in, below, around, etc.)

Interjection: a word that expresses emotion
4. After introductory phrases
Although I have a lot of things to get done,
I always make time to study for the CAHSEE.

5.Sets off the noun in direct address
will you please drop me off at OFL for CAHSEE prep?

6. to separate city and states
ex: Palmdale
Where do the commas go in each sentence?
1. George Washington the first president of the U.S. had dentures made of animal teeth and ivory.

2. China is the largest producer of garlic and they produce 75% of the world supply.
1. George Washington
the first president of the U.S.
had dentures made of animal teeth and ivory.

2. China is the largest producer of garlic
and they produce 75% of the world supply.
Use a hyphen to join two or more words serving a single adjective before a noun.
Ex: A one-way street
A well-known author

....With compound numbers
Ex: forty-six

Our much-loved teacher was sixty-three years old.
Quotation Marks
The primary function of quotation marks is to set off and represent exact language that has come from somebody else.

The period, comma, question mark, or exclamation mark ALWAYS comes before the final quotation mark.

"Have it your way," Alberta added, "if that is how you feel."
More Practice
Although a lot of this is review, you MUST make sure you understand it all before the CAHSEE.
Don't loose points because of punctuation!

If you skipped the practice, go back and do them.

And if you're unclear about any of this at all, come ask me questions!
* A quick reminder...
An independent clause is a complete sentence. It has both a
(a noun doing the main action of a sentence) and a
(the part of the sentence with the action).
The neighbor's

our turkey.
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