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Transcript of Direct ophthalmoscopy
examiner side of instrument
How to perform ophthalmoscopy
Patient side of ophthalmoscope
Dr Mathys Labuschagne
Clinical Simulation Unit,
School of Medicine, UFS
Horizontal dial for light settings
Cobalt blue filter
patient fixate at a distance
right eye examine right and left examine left
red reflex first
hand on head, lifting upper eye lid,
hand of examiner touch the cheek of the patient
look for bifurcation
in blood vessels
Features of glaucomatous disc
Bayonetting of blood vessels
Cup to disc ratio of more than 0,4
Pale disc with nasally displaced blood vessels
Thin rim that does not comply with the ISNT rule
Peripapillary choroidal atrophy
To determine if a lesion is elevated or excavated.
What is the cup/disc ratio?
Brow rest or pad
Focussing dial for Rekoss disk
Window indicator of lens power
Retinal vascular changes associated with systemic arterial hypertension. Hypertensive chorioretinopathy may also accompany the acute phases of hypertensive retinopathy.
Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR)
Pathophysiology of HR
Ophthalmoscope on +10.
Opacities in lens seen as dark areas in the pupil red reflex.
Bio-microscope gives precise anatomical position.
Diagnosis of cataract