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Transcript of MLA Formatting
Lead-in and signal phrases must be used when introducing and using sources.
In-Text citations provide short references within the body of the paper. They coincide with the works cited page at the end of the paper.
Quotations should be used only when absolutely necessary. Use them for citing detailed statistics and for phrases that are unique to the source. All other times, you should write in your own words through paraphrasing.
Works Cited Page
CASE 1: The lead-in phrase makes no mention of the author's last name:
Lead-in phrase, "Quote" or Paraphrase (Last Name Page #).
Example: According to research, "5% of all Americans do not know how to tie their shoes" (Smith 345).
CASE 2: The lead-in phrase makes use of the author's last name:
Lead-in phrase, "Quote" or Paraphrase (Page #).
Example: According to Mark Smith, "5% of all Americans do not know how to tie their shoes" (345).
CASE 3: The reference on the citation page does not have an author's last name:
Lead-in phrase, "Quote" or Paraphrase (First Relevant Information Page #).
Example: According to a study found in
The American Journal
, "5% of all Americans do not know how to tie their shoes" ("Shoes" 45).
CASE 4: The source is an internet source with no page numbers:
Lead-in phrase, "Quote" or Paraphrase (Last Name or First Relevant Information).
Example: According to a study found in The American Journal, "5% of all Americans do not know how to tie their shoes" ("Shoes").
Use lead-in & signal phrases to show the work is not your own:
- Modern Language Association -
Every quote or paraphrase should be given credit through a lead-in phrase and an in-text citation.
Type & print your essay on 8 1/2 x 11 inch standard white paper
Double space every part of the paper
Use a legible font (Times New Roman is no longer required, but it is recommended)
Use 12 pt. font
Leave only 1 space after periods & other punctuation
Set the margins of your paper to 1" (most word processors come standard with this, but Google docs does not)
Indent the first line of every paragraph 1/2" from the left margin (use the Tab Key; do not use the space bar)
Place your last name and page number in the upper right hand header of your paper
Place the following information in the upper left hand corner of the body of your paper (double space):
Your Instructor's Name
Date (Day Month Year)
Center the title. Do not underline, bold, italicize, or make bigger your title font
When referencing longer works in your paper, put their titles in italics
When referencing shorter works in your paper, put their titles in quotation marks
Writing About English Language & Humanities
for details on
how to format
Use ---. when
citing a new work
by the same author.
Place the citation
under the author's
"The ways in which domesticated animals have diverged from their wild ancestors include the following. Many species changed in size: cows, pigs, and sheep became smaller under domestication, while guinea pigs became larger."
Research shows that many species have changed their size: cows, pigs, and sheep are now smaller because of domestication, yet guinea pigs are larger.
According to one source, animals are different from how they used to be, particularly in size; some have grown larger, and some have become smaller (Diamond 159).
According to Richard Wright, ...
Psychologist Amy Weber explains that ...
The researchers also report that ...
In her memoir, Belinda Black tells about ...
The New York Times