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Cooking Techniques

PEC Tema 3 HOT34 A
by

Mar Cañellas

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of Cooking Techniques

By mass motion of a fluid (liquid or gas).
- Natural: currents are due to fluid density, hot fluids are less dense and rise and cold fluids drop, creating a circulation, like in a pot of water
- Forced: currents are induced. Like the spoon stirring or the fan of the oven.
P.E.C. Tema 3
Mar Cañellas HOT34A
Why do we cook?
Cooking = transforming raw material
Heat transfer
Dry Heat
Moist Heat
Hot Fat
Combined
Sauteing
Stir Fry
Pan Fry
Deep Fry

Poaching
Simmering
Boiling
Steaming
Pressure cooking
Sous-vide

Roasting
Baking
Grilling
Broiling
Pan-broiling

Braising
Stewing

Develop and enhance flavour
Improve digestibility
Prolong food life and maintain quality
Improve safety killing pathogenic microorganisms
Cooking Techniques
Heat flows from place to place by three mechanisms.
Cooking methods are grouped based on these and the media used to transfer heat (fat, liquid, direct...)
Conduction
Between objects that are in direct physical contact, by means of molecular agitation.
Some materials are better conductors, like metals, of which pots and pans are made.
Convection
Radiation
By means of electromagnetic waves, that travel through space.
In the kitchen mainly infrared, like the charcoal or the toaster, and the microwave.
Heat brings chemical, physical and microbiological changes
by applying heat
Exchange of thermal energy between objects, from the hotter to the colder, until temperatures are even.
Braising
: first saute and then simmer slowly in a tightly closed container in a moderate amount of liquid, cooking both by liquid and steam
Stewing
: similar to braising but ingredients are totally submerged
Moist heat, uses hot liquid or steam, or a combination of both, to cook the food.
Poaching
: gently cooking on a flavourful liquid at 70-80ºC.
Delicate food, eggs, fruit, fish.
"Court-bouillon"
= aromatic liquid used to submerged food and poach it
"Cuisson"
= liquid used for shallow poaching
Simmering
(
chup-chup
): food is submerged in liquid at 85-96ºC,below boiling point. Cooks slowly to tenderize.
Boiling
: submerging food in a large amount of liquid, generally water, with rapid and large bubbles caused by vapor. Approx temperature 100ºC, varies with liquid and additions (salt raises it, alcohol lowers it).
Blanching
: boiling to cook only partially
Steaming
: uses hot steam in a closed environment to conduct heat, placing the container in a basket or rack above boiling water. Maximizes taste and color and retains nutrients.
Pressure cooking is also a steaming method, adding pressure, cooks 2-3 times faster
Using both, dry first to sear, and then moist to cook.
Different types of stew:
Blanchette, white meat with a velouté
Ragoût, saute meat with flour and brown stock
Fricassee, as ragoût but with white stock
Fricandó, shredded meat
Goulash, with paprika and onions
FAT
: any soft, solid or semisolid organic compounds consisting of glycerol and fatty acids
Cooking in hot fat is considered a DRY method, even when fat is liquid, as no moisture is involved. Fat enables
higher temperatures
Sauteing
: cooking quickly with a minimal amount of fat over relatively high heat. Provides integrity of flavour and texture.
Stir-frying
: is like sauteing but in a wok and while stirring, used for bite sized pieces
Pan frying
: in a pan or skillet with a moderate amount of fat. Gives crisp quality, browned surface and tender interior
Deep frying
: completely submerging food in heated fat at high temperature.
Confiting
: uses lower temperature for fat. Aside of cooking is a preservation method.
For Pan and Deep Frying food is usually coated.
Coating creates crisp and crust and insulates food.
- Floured "a la andaluza"= flour
- Battered= flour+egg
- Breaded or panné= flour+egg+breadcrumbs
- Orly= batter with flour, yeast, egg and liquid
- Tempura= batter with fine flour and chilled water
Dry heat is transferred without using any moisture, by hot air, metal, fat or radiation.
Roasting
: cooking food uncovered placed on top of rack or on a fork-spit, mostly in a closed environment (oven)
Open-spit roasts over open fire
Grilling
: heat from beneath through open metal grates
Baking
: by hot air in a closed environment (oven), with food uncovered on a tray or tin.
Broilling
: under direct heat from above, like in the oven or the salamander. Temperature is controlled by distance.Torch could be considered also broiling
Pan-broilling or pan roasting
; on the stove top in a saute pan or skillet.
Griddling
: in a solid surface
which changes some of the carachteristics of the components of food (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and minerals)
Browning reactions:
Pasteurization
Coagulation
Gelatinization
Breaking-down fiber
Evaporation
.......
Osmosis
&Diffusion
Although not requiring energy, they produce relevant changes.
Osmosis
is the spontaneus movement of molecules through a membrane to equalize concentration on both sides
In cooking is the base of
brining
(used to cure meat and cheese) and
pickling
(like sauerkraut)
Named after microbiologist Louis Pasteur. by heating to a specific temperature for a predefined time and then cooling, reduces the pathogens, not affecting taste and quality (unlike sterilization)
They produce new flavours
Caramelization of sugar
: molecules of sucrose melt and progesively turn into dark brown
Maillard reactions
: between a carbohydrate molecule and an amino acid producing new by-products, brown coloration, intense flavour and aroma.
Sous vide: application of heat to a food vacuum-sealed in a bag, cooked for a relatively long period at a precise low temperature in a water bath
Food keeps all juices, avoids overcooking and can be stored longer time
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