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Consumer Chemistry

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Lisa Hill

on 14 October 2013

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Transcript of Consumer Chemistry

Consumer Chemistry
Introduction
Chemicals are everywhere. We have to ask what is in the products we consume and why. Choosing three different products for closer inspection enabled me to see what is actually in the products we consume, however beneficial or harmful that ingredient might be, and why that specific ingredient made the cut.


Products:

7) Source: Sodium bicarbonate is made by combining an acid (carbonic) and a base (sodium hydroxide)
8) Uses, hazards, side effects etc.: Baking soda can be used for a wide variety of things which include: neutralizing odors chemically, cleaning, buffering and even fire extinguishing. An alkaline compound, baking soda combines with an acid to produce carbon dioxide gas. The small bubbles of carbon dioxide gas get trapped in batter causing it to rise. Normally, sodium bicarbonate is well tolerated, but high doses can cause headache, nausea, and irritability.
9) Baking soda allows foods to keep their shape. When batter gets exposed to heat, it becomes rigid and the the expansion caused by gas bubbles set in place, allowing the granola bar to stay firm for the duration of its shelf life.
Drenched in Pink

7) Source: Liquid whey (about 6.5% dry matter content) is clarified and concentrated in falling film evaporators to 55-65% total solids. After cooling, the majority of the lactose crystallizes as lactose monohydrate. The crystal mixture is transferred to a line of decanters and centrifuges and washed multiple times. Following drying, milling and fractionation, yellowish lactose (edible grade) of different particle sizes is obtained. Upon completion of the washing stage, the raw product can be redissolved, treated with activated carbon and recrystallized to refined or pharmaceutical grades of lactose.
8) Uses, hazards, side effects etc,: Naturally, lactose is a type of sugar found in dairy products. Lactose is added as a coating to prepared foods to prevent caking, mostly because lactose is flavorless. You can find lactose in frozen and canned vegetables because it prevents discoloration of foods, Lactose can also be found in powdered food products (soups and dehydrated potatoes) and non-dairy foods (coffee creamers).
9) Lactose is added to Chewy bars because its ability to prevent caking while the additive remains flavorless.

Extra Strength Non-Aspirin
1) Common name: Milk sugar
2) Chemical Name: Lactose
3) Chemical formula: C12H22O11
4) Molecular weight: 342.29648
5) Melting point: decomposes at 203.5 deg C
6) Physical description: Sweet, odorless. White, crystalline mass of white powder.

7) Source: Limestone is converted into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide by means of calcination at temperatures in excess of 900 deg C. To maintain a high level of purity, calcination is done using natural gas. After calcined lime has been slaked with water, the resulting milk of lime is purified and carbonated with the carbon dioxide obtained from the calcination process. Upon completion of total carbonation, calcium carbonate results.
8) Uses, hazards, side effects etc.: Natural forms of calcium carbonate include: chalk, limestone, and marble. Its also commonly found in food products such as enriched products like bread, baked goods, cereals, and soy milk. Calcium carbonate is used as an effective dietary calcium supplement and leavening agent.
9) Calcium carbonate is used as an additive in Chewy bars for its calcium and leavening properties.

1) Common name: calcium carbonate
2) Chemical name: Calcium carbonate
3) Chemical formula: CaCO3
4) Molecular weight: 100.0869
5) Melting point: 825 deg C
6) Physical description: tasteless, odorless, why powder or crystal substance.
Polyethylene Glycol
Ascorbic Acid
Lactose
Calcium Carbonate
Glycerin
Ascorbic acid
Ceteareth-20
Pharmaceutical:
Extra Strength Non-Aspirin
Povidone
Hypromellose
Polyethylene glycol
Household:
Drenched in Pink
body lotion
Food:
Quaker Oats Chewy Granola Bar
Sodium bicarbonate
lactose
polydextrose
calcium carbonate
Sodium Bicarbonate
1) Common name: Baking soda
2) Chemical name: Sodium Bicarbonate
3) Chemical formula: CHNaO3
4) Molecular weight: 84.006609
5) Melting point: 50 deg C
6) Physical description: odorless, white crystalline powder.
Polydextrose
Common name: Polydextrose
Chemical name: Polydextrose
Chemical formula: C12H22O11
Molecular weight: 342.29648
Melting point: 110 to 130 deg C
Physical description: white amorphous powder with a bland taste
Source:dextrose is synthesized from sorbitol ( a low-calorie carbohydrate) and glucose
Uses, hazards, side effects etc: Used as a food additive, polydextrose sweetens the product. Polydextrose has a low digestible energy value and is used to provide bulk in foods, thus reducing the overall caloric content of the final product. Adds texture to food without adding sweetness, creating a replacement for sugar, starch, and fat in foods.
Polydextrose is added to Chewy Bars (25% less sugar) because of its ability to lower caloric content and and allows the bars to claim high fiber, low calorie, and no added sugar.

Quaker Oats Chewy Bar
Glycerin
1) common name: glycerol
2) chemical name: Glycerin
3) Chemical formula: C3H8 O3
4) Molecular weight: 98.09328
5) Melting point: 18.1 deg C
6) Physical description: Clear, little to no odor, syrupy liquid. Has a sweet, warm taste.
7) Where it comes from/ how its made: Glycerin is made by altering the chemical composition of propane, taking it out of its natural links in fats while performing chemical processes such as creating biodiesel fuel. Although there are ways of creating glycerin synthetically, the popularity and use of biofuels makes this option common.
8) uses, hazards, side effects: One of the most popular uses of glycerin is to create soap. Potential hazards include: possible eye irritation and skin irritation. Ingested in large amounts may cause gastrointestinal irritation. Also, inhalation of a mist of this material may cause respiratory tract irritation. Though no chronic hazards are found.
9) Glycerin is used in products such as lotions because of its ability to absorb and contain water easily, as well as its ability to make glycerin-based lotions feel soft on the skin

1) common name:Vitamin C
2) chemical name: L-ascorbic Acid
3) Chemical formula: C6H8O6
4) molecular weight: 176.12412
5)melting point: 190-192 deg C
6) Physical description: white to slightly yellow crystals or powder, gradually darkens upon exposure to light. Odorless, sharp acidic taste

7) Ascorbic acid is the synthetic equivalent to Vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is made by first making glucose from corn starch, then using a multi-step method called ‘The Reichsein process’, ascorbic acid is produced.
8) uses, hazards, and side effects: Ascorbic acid can be used for the treatment and prevention of Vitamin C deficiency, which includes “scurvy”. Also, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) in needed for tissue growth and repair in the body, also an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons ligaments, and blood vessels. Possible side effects include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, stomach cramps, headache, and others.
9) Why is it in this product? Ascorbic acid is mainly found in lotions because of the powerful antioxidant properties that can be found in it. Ascorbic acid mainly contributes to the production of collagen, a structural protein that by connecting soft tissues with the skeleton, provides structure to the face, reducing lines and wrinkles on the skin.
Ceteareth-20
1)common name: Ceteareth-20
2) chemical name: Ceteareth-20
3) chemical formula: C18H38O
4) molecular weight: 270.49 g/mol
5) melting point: 40 deg C
6) physical appearance: white powder, no ordor
7) how is it made: Made from cetearyl alcohol-a mixture of cetyl and stearyl alcohol, and ethylene oxide, compose Ceteareths. The numerical value represents the average number of molecules of ethylene oxide added to generate the specific Ceteareth ingredient. Ceteareth-20 is made by reacting Cetearyl Alcohol with an average of 20 molecules of ethylene oxide.
8) uses, hazards and side effects: Ceteareth-20 is common in beauty products such as: moisturizers, hair conditioners, skin care products, suntan and indoor tanning products and hair dyes. Considered to be a moderate to severe health hazard, Ceteareth-20 is restricted for use in cosmetics. This chemical contains ethylene oxide, which are two known cancer causing substances.
9) Ceteareth-20 is common in beauty products because it is a penetration enhancer, which allows substances to penetrate deeper into the skin by altering the skin structure.
Povidone
1) Common name: Povidone
2) Chemical name: Polyvinylpyrrolidone
3) Chemical formula: C6H9 I2NO
4) Molecular weight: 364.9507 g/mol
5) Melting Point: 300 deg C
6) Physical description: Povidone can be a white or milk white powder solid and in a transparent or with a faint yellow yue when a liquid. Also, Povidone is easily soluble in water.

7) Source: Povidone is made from the monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone.
8) Uses, hazards, side effects etc.: Povidone is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a binder in capsules and tablet. May cause eye and skin irritation, Excessive absorption of iodine should be avoided. High concentrations of iodine in the blood from ingestion or inhalation may cause thyroid disorder.
9) Povidone is in the product because of its ability to bind capsules and tablets and that it’s also soluble in water.
Hypromellose:
1) Common name: Hypromellose
2) Chemical Name: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose
3) Chemical formula: C3H7O
4)Molecular weight: 59.08708
5) Melting point: 65 deg c
6) physical description: In its pure form, its a granule or a powder

7) source: Hypromellose is a propylene glycol ether of methylcellulose. Dried for two hours at 40.5 deg, hydroxypropoxy and methoxy groups conform to create Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.
8) uses, hazards, side effects etc: hypromellose can be used in the eyes to keep them lubricated, also a few artificial tears contain hypromellose. It can also be used in drugs as a way to control/slow the release of medication. Sometimes seen on tablet coatings. Can be used in foods to thicken, suspend, or emulsify ingredients. It is vegetarian--makes it an alternative to food containing gelatin. Also appears in cosmetics, paints, adhesives, and some cleaning products.
9) Hypromellose is put into non-aspirin to control the release of medication

1) Common name: Polyethylene Glycol
2) Chemical Name: Polyethylene glycol:
3) Chemical formula: C56H112O28
4) Molecular Weight: 1221.46098
5) Melting point: 67 deg C
6) Physical Description: Polyethylene glycol varies in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight.
7) Source: Polyethylene glycol is produced by the interaction of ethylene oxide with water, ethylene glycol oligomers, or ethylene glycol. Chain length of polymer depends on the ratio of reactants.
8) Uses, hazards, and side effects: Uses include treatment for constipation, polyethylene glycol can also be used in medications to create an elongated effect of the drug. side effects include: nausea, abdominal cramping, dizziness, or stomach/intestinal problems (irritable bowel syndrome). Although serious side effects of this drug are rare.
9) Polyethylene glycol is used in Non-Asprin to create longer lasting effects of the drug. To prolong its effectiveness.
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