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Copy of Chapter 3 project

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Nicole Dooka

on 21 December 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Chapter 3 project

By Nicole Dooka Chapter 3 Creating the Constitution Government By the States Articles of Confederation Settling Western Lands The Constitutional Convention Begins constitution- a document stating the rules under which a government will operate executive- a person who runs the government and sees that the laws are carried out Vocabulary Main Idea The first state constitutions were designed to support the principles fought for in the American Revolution. Protecting Rights The Declaration of Independence listed ways that Britain had violated the rights of the colonist. To prevent such of abuses, the states sought to protect individual rights. Protecting Rights Virginia Bill Of Rights Freedom of Religion Limits on Searches Freedom of the Press Limits on Arrests Trial by Jury No Cruel and Unusual Punishment Main Idea The Articles of Confederation were designed to preserve liberty by restricting the powers of the federal government. Form of Government The Government under the Articles of Confederation had one branch of government instead of three. This branch was the one-house legislature, called the Congress. Limited Government Parliament passed laws the colonist considered unfair. This is because the states did not want the risk of giving the central government to much power. The Articles of Confederation provided for the limited central government. could could not deal with foreign nations
deal with Native Americans outside the 13 colonies
make laws
declare war
coin of borrow money
run a postal service
ask for money if needed regulate trade
collect trade
they could not enforce the laws made Congress Main Idea The ordinances of 1785 and 1787 created a way for national lands to be sold in public. Vocabulary devise-to think up an idea or something and figure out how it will work Land Ordinance of 1785 Congress had to devise a system for land sales and settlement. Under the Land Ordinance of 1785, surveyors were to divide public lands into townships. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 People were interested at buying the Northwest Territory, it is the land of the Ohio River. they passed Congress to determine how this area would be governed. it guaranteed basic rights for settlers in the territory and banned slavery there. Growing Problems Main Idea The Articles of Confederation denied the central government the power to deal effectively with several key issues facing the nation. Vocabulary Economic Depression- a period of time when business activity slows, prices and wages drop, and unemployment rises. Daniel Shays- a former Revolutionary War captain who led the uprising of about 1,000 Massachusetts farmers. Economic Problems Under the Articles, each state set its own trade policy. Each state tried to help its own farmers and manufacturers by setting taxes on goods brought in from other states. this practice discouraged trade among the states. In addition, each state printed its own money, making trade between states harder. Foreign Affairs When the United States was weak many of the powerful nations began to look at them in scorn and kept their forts in many places that violated the peace treaty. Shays' Rebellion During the mid-1780s, the United States hit a sever economic depression. As the depression became worse, there was a widespread of despair and anger. The depression hit really hard for the farmers in Massachusetts, and as the crop prices declined the farmers were not able to pay their taxes. In August 1786 the former Revolutionary captain named Daniel Shays led an uprising of about 1,000 Massachusetts farmers to seize arms from a state warehouse, but they were arrested and although the rebellion fizzled they still got what they wanted by scaring the state. They got the The Articles of Confederation as a compromise to the Great Depression, this was declared in 1787. Main Idea The Original aim of the Constitutional Convention was to revise the Articles of Confederation Aims of the Convention The Delegates Vocabulary James Madison- a 36 year old Virginia influential delegate that took many notes and his notes were published after his death. The members of the convention did not have the authority to form a new system of government. The Congress called the meeting the sole and the express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation. There were 55 delegates from 12 states that took part in the convention. Only Rhode Island did not have any representatives. The Virginia Plan Main Idea The Virginia Plan set forth an entirely new framework for the national government. Vocabulary Judicial branch- consists of a system of courts that interpret the law Three Branches of Government The Virginia Plan made the central government have three separate branches. The three branches of government were the judicial branch and the executive branch, and the Congress would continue to be the legislative branch. A Two-House Legislature The Virginia Plan later stated that instead of having a one-house legislature they wanted it to consist of a lower house and an upper house. The Great Compromise Main Idea After fierce debate, delegates agreed on a plan that satisfied both large and small states. The New Jersey Plan Roger Sherman- A man of Connecticut said the people"should have as little to do" with the selection process because they can be mislead. James Wilson- A man of Pennsylvania wanted people to be in the process, according to Wilson, "not only the cornerstone, but the foundation of fabric." Vocabulary Compromise- is an agreement in which each side gives up part of what it wants. The small states opposed to this because they wanted the same number of votes in Congress. Terms of the Compromise Roger Sherman soon found out a compromise for both the large and small states. The key to Sherman's plan was to have a two-house legislature. Debates Over Slavery Main Idea Disputes among the delegates over slavery indicated just how deeply divided the North and South were. Three-Fifths Compromise Southern delegates said that enslaved people should be recorded in how many representatives a state should have in congress. But, the North disagreed and said otherwise. The Congress came up with the Three- Fifths Compromise and said that each slave will be counted as three-fifths of a person. Slave Trade Many people that lived in the north wanted to ban the buying and selling of slaves. But the people in the south believed that without slaves their economy would be ruined. The Slave Trade Compromise There was once again, a compromise, the compromise was that slave ships were allowed to bring slaves in for 20 more years, then the slave ships could no longer bring slaves in. A New Constitution Main Idea The Constitution of the United States derives its authority from"We the People of the United States." Vocabulary Gouverneur Morris- a man that is a gifted writer that was responsible for writing the Preamble, or introduction. The Preamble highlights a major difference between the Constitution and the Articles of Confederation. The Articles were a pact between different states and the Constitution was about all the people of the United States. "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union... do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America." Federalist Verses Anti-Federalist Main Idea Supporters and opponents of the new Constitution argued over the need for a strong central government. Vocabulary Ratify- to approve
Alexander Hamilton and John Jay- published the Federalist Papers, a series of 85 newspaper essays in support of the Constitution.
George Mason- a man of Virginia along with Patrick Henry agreed that the Articles of Confederation were not strong enough. The Federalist Position Supporters of the New Constitution. Anti-Federalist Lead by George Mason and Patrick Henry, believed that the Articles of Confederation were not strong enough. George Mason
1725-1792 The author of the Virginia Bill of Rights, George Mason, went to the Constitutional Convention with hopes of forming "a wise and just government." The Ratification Debate Main Idea After intense debates, each of the 13 states ratified the Constitution. As the debate between the Federalist and the Anti-Federalist became worse, the states held many ratification conventions. Without the approval of the 9 states, the Constitution could not go into affect.
Delaware acted first on December 7, 1787, the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and lastly Connecticut.
The Anti-Federalist hoped to win over Massachusetts. Opposition to the Constitution was strong in the rural areas from which Shays' Rebellion had drawn its strength. Only a major campaign by the Constitution supporters won ratification by the state.
All eyes moved to Virginia. By then, Maryland and South Carolina had ratified, which made a total of eight states ratification. The Bill of Rights Main Idea The Bill of Rights aims to protect Americans against unfair use of government powers. Once the ninth state had ratified the Constitution, Congress took steps to prepare for the new government. George Washington was elected the first President, with John Adams as Vice President. During the debate of the Constitution, many states wanted the Bill of Rights.
Amendment ICongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
mendment IIA well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.Amendment IIINo Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.Amendment IV
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.Amendment VNo person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.Amendment VIIn all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.Amendment VIIIn Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Amendment VIII
xcessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.Amendment IXThe enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.Amendment X
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
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