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35. 20th. C.: New Directions

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by

Peter Chun

on 27 April 2012

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Transcript of 35. 20th. C.: New Directions

New Music
“From Schoenberg I learned that tradition is a home we must love and forgo.”
—Lukas Foss
“New Music,”
a term that has been used throughout history
Virtually every generation has produced music that sounded like a departure from what’s been done
Innovation in the last half of the 20th century far outstripping any innovations prior
Musical trends continues to be comparable to the movements in other arts, if not mirror them
"Toward Greater


In Music"

Organization
"Toward Greater


In Music"

Freedom
Counter to total serialism
Chance determines portions of “happening”
Letting aspects of varied & loose parameters be determined by chance (usually by the performer)
Indeterminate, aleatoric music
open form (flexible structure of music)
Collage
Uses of Microtonal scales: pitches in between the common semi-tones
“My music liberates because I give people the chance to change their minds in the way I’ve changed mine.”
—John Cage
VS.
Pre-determination
Application of Schoenberg’s 12-tone method
Total serialism
Extending the tone-row principle to other elements of music, such as
Duration, dynamic values, timbres
Even registers, densities, types of attack (articulation), and sizes of intervals
an extremely complex, ultra-rational music
The Arts since the Mid-Twentieth Century
Social turmoil reflected in the arts
Movements in the arts
Abstract Expressionism:
Jackson Pollock
Pop Art:
Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein
Post-Modernism:
conceptual art, minimalism, environmental art, etc.
Feminist and ethnic art and literature
The Postwar Internationalism
Milton Babbitt, John Cage, Morton Feldman
US:
Italy:
Luciano Berio
Greece:
Iannis Xenakis
Krzysztof Penderecki
Poland:
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Germany:
France:
Pierre Boulez
Soviet Union (later Russia):
Darmstadt School
International Summer Courses for New Music that started in 1946
A designation associated primarily with the serial music written in the 1950s by Luigi Nono, Bruno Maderna, Stockhausen and Boulez and promoted by them in the 1950s at the Darmstadt summer courses
One of the dominant (fanatical for some, oppressively for others) influences on the international music scene for the next 3-4 decades
Fanatical insistence on dodecaphonic writing, to the point of espousing the moral supremacy of
Sofiya Gubaidulina, Alfred Schnittke
American Voices in the Postwar Era
Elliot Carter:
“metric modulation”
George Perle:
Serial procedures w/ tonality
Milton Babbitt:
Electronic Music/
Serial music
Morton Feldman
Charles Wuorinen:
Freely adopted serialism
Ralph Shapey:
Voice as instrument
Henry Brant:
Spatial music
Louise Talma:
Tonal qualities in serial music
Barbara Kolb:
Expressive style of serialism
The New Virtuosity of the Modern Age
Contemporary virtuosity
“Extended techniques”: ways of performing instruments and singing that goes beyond the traditional means
Avant-garde specialists
Demanding vocal line
12-tone technique with East Asian influence
Virtuoso Women Singers of the 20th C.
Bethany Beardslee:
Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Berg, Babbitt
Cathy Berberian:
John Cage, Berio
Phyllis Bryn-Julson:
Stravinsky, Berg, many others
Jan DeGaetani:
Crumb, Carter, many others
George Crumb
(b. 1929)
and Avant-Garde Virtuosity
Emotional, dramatic, expressive music
University of Pennsylvania
Federico García Lorca
“Music [is] a system of proportions in the service of a spiritual impulse.”
—George Crumb
Ancient Voices of Children
Cycle of songs
Soprano, boy soprano, oboe, mandolin, harp, electric piano, percussion
Voice is used like an instrument, just one of the colors available
Vocalise (wordless melody)
Singing into amplified piano, singing microtones
International percussion
Dark intimations of poetry
Full transcript