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The Space Race
Transcript of The Space Race
Emphasis was placed on mathematics and science, although all sorts of subjects were given funding by the act.
Billions of dollars funded technological and educational advances in schools. Effect on America:
The National Defense Education Act Bibliography Sputnik:
Leadup Development of Spunik-1, then codnamed Object D, took longer than expected, and in order to reach their goal, a much simpler design was settled on.
The new design was an aluminum sphere protected by thermal plating and held together by bolts and rubber sealing. Inside the rocket two radios, a ventilator fan, and three zinc-silver batteries could be found.
From February to October of 1957, the new design was tested and retested to ensure spaceworthiness. Sputnik:
Launch The Soviet Union had two lunar exploration programs: Vostok and Luna.
Vostok ran six missions from 1960-1963 before it was dropped. It was a series of manned missions. Vostok 1, 2, and 5 were the most significant. Vostok 1 launched the first man, Yuri Gagarin, into space. Vostok 2 was the first spacecraft to spend an entire day in space. Vostok 5 was the longest solo spaceflight in history, lasting 4 days and 23 hours.
Luna ran 24 missions from 1959 to 1976. It was a series of unmanned missions.
Its most important missions before the moon landing were Luna 1, 2, 3, and 9.
Luna 1 was the first satellite to fly by the moon. Luna 2 was the first spacecraft to land on the moon. Luna 3 was the first spacecraft to take pictures of the dark side of the moon, the side that can never be seen from Earth. Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the moon, take pictures of the surface, and return them back to Earth. The Space Race:
Russian efforts The Space Race:
American efforts Apollo 11 was the spacecraft that landed the first two men on the moon. These men were Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. A third man, Michael Collins, would not join them on the surface.
The craft launched on July 16, 1969 and landed on the moon on July 20th.
After stepping out, Armstrong delivered his world famous "One small step" line. Aldrin would join him outside shortly thereafter.
They placed an American flag on the moon. They collected rock samples, photographed the moon, placed solar panels on the surface, and took seismic activity graphs. They also placed three commemorative medallions on the surface in honor of the Apollo 1 crew.
They left the moon after spending 21 hours on it. They landed back on Earth on July 24th. The Space Race:
Moon landing NASA developed several new technologies to aid astronauts on their missions. These included a battery-powered drill, a portable computer, and several other things developed solely with the space race in mind.
These revolutionary technologies were eventually used to provide services to the public in various ways. They were adapted and released in such a manner that they are now heavily integrated into our lives.
Satellite TV, laptops, cordless power tools, joysticks, and even 3D video games originated from technology which was created during the Space Race. Effect on America:
Technological advances The current trend of being conscious of Earth's resources and the limited supply of them has the Space Race to thank for its creation
Once we were able to land on the moon, we were able to take pictures of Earth from space. This view from space opened the public's eyes to just how small Earth really is.
Seeing the small blue orb helped to kickstart the early environmentalist movement. Effect on America:
Fragility The Americans had two main lunar exploration programs as well: Ranger and Apollo. Ranger was unmanned while Apollo was manned.
Ranger lasted from 1959 to 1965. It had three blocks, respectively named Block I, Block II, and Block III. Block I was composed of Ranger 1 and 2. Block II was composed of Ranger 3, 4, and 5. Block III had Ranger 6, 7, 8, and 9.
Ranger 1 and Ranger 2 were simply test missions. They were launched for engineering development purposes. Ranger 3, 4, and 5 were all launched in 1962. Ranger 3 missed the moon and Ranger 4 and 5 failed before reaching it. Block III's crafts were launched in 1964-1965. Ranger 6's camera failed and couldn't get photos. Ranger 7, 8, and 9 all succeeded with obtaining photos.
Apollo spanned from 1963-1972. It would be the program that launched a man onto the lunar surface.
Apollo started out disastrously. Apollo 1's crew was killed in a fire caused by a malfunction in the command module. The next manned spacecraft in the program was Apollo 7, which tested the Command Module. Apollo 8 tested various components and snapped photos of the moon. Apollo 9 tested the Lunar Module. Apollo 10 did the same thing that Apollo 8 did, except with a different crew. It wasn't until the legendary Apollo 11 mission that the US achieved its goal of landing on the moon. Russia began their forays into space decades prior to the launch of Spunik with GIRD-Group for Research into Jet Propulsion in English.
This group mostly produced ICBMs, though they did make several rockets that were able to enter space for brief intervals.
In 1954, Sergei Korolev, Mstislav Keldysh, and Igor Kurchatov proposed the idea of creating an artifical satellite to orbit the earth to the Soviet government. These three had worked in the fields of rocketry in the past-Korolev, in fact, was leader of GIRD's fourth brigade-and wished to design an automated laboratory to measure things such as cosmic and solar radiation. They decided that the launch should take place in 1957 or 1958 so that they might reach space earlier than the Americans.
The Soviet government may have had ulterior motives for authorizing the project. Given that GIRD had made a number long-range weapons in the past and that Kurchatov also headed Russia's production of atomic weapons, it is completely plausible that the Soviets may have intended to use satellites as a weapon at some point in time. Mitchell, Don. "Sputnik-1." Mental Landscape. n.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <http://www.mentallandscape.com/S_Sputnik1.htm>
Mitchell, Don. "Group for the Study of Jet Propulsion." Mental Landscape. n.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <http://www.mentallandscape.com/S_GIRD.htm>
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Abramson, Larry. "Sputnik Left Legacy for U.S. Science Education." NPR. NPR, 30 Sept. 2007. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14829195>.
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Mead, Rob. "10 Tech Breakthroughs to Thank the Space Race for." TechRadar. Future PLC, 20 July 2009. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://www.techradar.com/us/news/world-of-tech/10-tech-breakthroughs-to-thank-the-space-race-for-617847>.
Dick, Steven J. "Why We Explore - Societal Impact of the Space Race." NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA, 4 Apr. 05. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/whyweexplore/Why_We_09.html>.
"Trippensee® System Model ~ Solar System Models." ENasco. Nasco, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <http://www.enasco.com/product/SB15350M>. Trope, Cindy. "The GRiD Compass Laptop and the Space Shuttle." Smithsonian Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in New York. Smithsonian, 21 July 2011. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.cooperhewitt.org/conversations/2011/07/21/grid-compass-laptop-and-space-shuttle>.
Ackerman, Dan. "Laptops and Desktop PCs for Back to School." CNET. CBS Interactive, 18 July 2012. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://reviews.cnet.com/back-to-school-gift-ideas/desktops-laptops-netbooks/>.
"Apollo 11 Image Gallery." NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://history.nasa.gov/ap11ann/kippsphotos/apollo.html>. Bibliography Sputnik-1 was launched on October 4th, 1957.
The satellite was carried into space with GIRD's R-7 rocket.
Though the R-7 stopped short of its destination do to lack of fuel, the satellite had made it into low-Earth orbit.
Almost immediately, nations in NATO and the U.S. began to grow concerned over Russia's ostensibly advanced technology.