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Operant Conditioning - Part 1
Transcript of Operant Conditioning - Part 1
CONDITIONING Suppose every time you get an A, your parents buy you a gift. What behavior would increase? Operant Conditioning - learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence. called operant because the subject changes a
behavior (or operates on environment) and the
result of the environment will determine wether
the subject increases or decreases behavior
(rewards or punishments) ex: it wasn't until Penny did something that Sheldon
wanted her to, that she got a chocolate. Therefore,
Penny kept doing the behaviors that Sheldon wanted
her to. If Penny wouldn't have gotten a reward, she
would not have continued those behaviors. How does Operant differ from Classical? In classical conditioning, the stimulus is presented,
independent of the subject's behavior and then natural reactios are observed. In operant conditioning, the subject must engage in a behavior for an outcome to occur (voluntary behaviors) Reinforcement B.F. Skinner believed that most behavior is
influenced by our history of rewards and punishments
and through these, you can shape any behavior. Another experiment that Skinner did was place a rat in his
Skinner box and they had to learn that by pressing a lever, they would get food, which acts as a reinforcement for the rat to press the lever again and again.
Try it!! Reinforcer - Stimulus or event that follows a response and increases
the likelihood that the response will be repeated. Obviously, the reinforcer has to have meaning for you, otherwise it wouldn't be
a reinforcer. Primary Reinforcer - one that satiates a biological need
(hunger, thirst, happiness, etc.)
Secondary Reinforcer - stimulus that becomes reinforcing
through its link with a primary reinforcer (ex: money, stars, etc.) Exctinction - eventually, if you stop the reinforcer, the behavior
will stop. Schedules of Reinforcement In Operant Conditioning, an important factor is
timing and frequency of delivery of reinforcement. Continuous Schedule - behavior that is reinforced
everytime it occurs
ex: a kid getting ice cream after every time they eat
their veggies. You would think this is the best way to maintain a
behavior...but when reinforcement occurs intermittently,
or on a partial schedule a behavior is more likely to be
stronger and last longer. If you stop a reinforcer in a continuous schedule, it
will become extinct quicker.
However, for someone who cannot predict when the next
reinforcement will occur, they learn to be persistent. 4 Schedules of Reinforcement: Ratio - based on number of responses. fixed-ratio schedule - reinforcement is delivered after a
specified quantity of responses.
ex: A child gets a toy after cleaning his room every 4 times. variable-ratio schedule - reinforcement varies from one
delivery to the next.
ex: people begging on the streets can get money every car,
every 5 cars, or every 3 cars, or Casino Slot Machine Interval - based on elapsed time. fixed-interval schedule - reinforcement is given after a
specified amount of time has elapsed.
ex: getting paid at the end of the month. variable-interval schedule - reinforcement is delivered after
changing amounts of time.
ex: If you are being "caught" good - at every 2, 3, or 5
minutes. Behavior is more resistant to extinction when reinforced
in a variable schedule instead of a fixed schedule. Fixed Variable Ratio Interval Examples A child getting a candy every time he finishes one homework A child getting a candy when he finishes 2 homework assignments, then 4, then 3, then back to 2. A child getting candy every night he finishes his homework. A child getting candy every 3 nights, every 2 nights, at then end of the week, etc. A child is promised candy for doing his homework