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Behaviour strategies in pedagogical practice

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Rebecca Rosolen

on 7 June 2013

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Transcript of Behaviour strategies in pedagogical practice

Research supported Strategies 25% to 40% of teachers leave the profession within the first 5 years!
(Milburn,2012) Teacher education programs and school-based induction and mentoring are failing to prepare pre-service teachers adequately for the stressful demands of teaching?

(Milburn, 2012). Attrition rates have been linked to:
excessive workloads
compliance with paperwork and administration
emotional exhaustion
the lack of skill sets in dealing with problematic student behaviour

(Milburn, 2012) Conditioning Operant

Conditioning Let's explore Ivan Pavlov (Born September 14, 1849) Ivan Pavlov, was a Russian physiologist. He accidentally discovered CLASSICAL CONDITIONING at the beginning of the 20th century while studying the digestive process in dogs. He discovered that the dogs would salivated before they received their food and after repeating the process using a lab attendant and food, he noticed that the dogs would salivate at the sight of the lab assistants with the knowledge that the lab assistant meant that food was coming. Pavlov spent the rest of his life studying this associate learning.

(Cherry, 2013; Woolfolk & Margetts, 2012) B.F. Skinner was an American behaviourist born in Pennsylvania. As a behaviourist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations of humans could not be used to explain behaviour. Instead he thought we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behaviour. Skinner used the term 'OPERANT' to refer to any 'active behaviour that operates upon the environment to generate consequences'. Skinner's theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviours we exhibit each and every day.

(Woolfork & Margetts, 2012; Swenson, 2009) Theorist Who are they and what did they discover? Classical

Conditioning B.F. Skinner (Born March 20, 1904) Example of
Operant Conditioning: Children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher


employees finishing projects to recieve praise or promotion. The promise or possibility of rewards causes an increase in behaviour Operant conditioning can also be used to decrease behaviour. HOW? Through the removal of an undesirable outcome or the use of punishment which can be used to decrease or prevent undesirable behaviours. Example... A child may be told that they will lose recess privileges if they talk out of turn in class.

This potential punishment may lead to a decrease in the student's disruptive behaviour. Key concepts of conditioning... Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Examples... Example... Punishment Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Let's elaborate... The reinforcement of
behaviour is created through
"any consequence that
strengthens the behaviour it follows.
So, by definition, reinforced behaviours increase in frequency or duration". Whereas..... The aim of
is to
remove a
trait. One of the easiest ways to remember positive reinforcement is to think of it as something being added..... Natural
Tangible rewards or tokens
Activity rewards One of the easiest ways of thinking about negative reinforcement is the taking away of something. Overview Conditioning
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning, &
The theorist Reinforcement & Punishment
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
Positive & Negative Punishment Scheduling Scenario Scenario Scenario NOTE: Negative reinforcement is NOT the same as punishment ! With 20% of that
being in the first year.

(Hudson, 2012) It is important to note that the type of reinforcer used depends upon the individual and the situation. While gold stars and tokens might be very effective reinforcement for a second-grader, they are not going to have the same effect with a older student in upper grades.

(Cherry, 2013) (cherry, 2013) (Cherry, 2013) (Hudson, 2013) Behaviour Strategies


Pedagogical Practice Schedules of reinforcement are an important component of the learning process
When and how teacher reinforce a behaviour can have a dramatic impact on the strength of the response (Fritscher, 2013; Kelly, n/a) Continuous Reinforcement Scheduling
Reinforcement Partial
Scheduling Two types of
Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement
Partial Reinforcement In Partial Scheduling there are components to consider.... Fixed ratio scheduling
Variable-ratio scheduling
Fixed-interval scheduling
Variable-interval scheduling But how
do we
choose a
schedule The Balancing Act! What should you as a teacher remember when deciding on what reinforcement to use? To Sum Up.... (Kelly, n/a) (Cherry, 2013) (Cherry, 2013) (Fritscher, 2009) (Kelly, n/a) Reference Benefits... Encourages an increase in productivity, on task behaviour
Builds confidence and self-esteem (Fritscher, 2009) REALITY... 41% of teachers reporting high levels of occupational stress 31% of people
in nursing 29% of
people in managerial jobs 27% of people in
and support
occupations Compared to... Benefits... Encourages inceased productivity (on task behaviour)
builds student confident and self-esteem Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2013). The Shape of the Australian Curriculum Version 4.0. October 2012. Retrieved from ACARA website http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/The_Shape_of_the_Australian_Curriculum_v4.pdf Beitz, T.A. (2007). Academy for puppies and dogs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from http://smartdogtrainer.com/operant-conditioning.htm
Belsky, J. (September 25, 2008). Rewards are better than punishment: Here’s Why. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/family-affair/200809/rewards-are-better-punishment-here-s-why
Cherry, K. (2013). Schedules of reinforcement. Retrieved from
http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/schedules.htm Cherry, K. (2013). Introduction to Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm
Cherry, K. (2013). What is Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/positive-reinforcement.htm Cherry, K. (2013). What Is Reinforcement? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/reinforcement.htm
Cherry, K. (2013). What Is Positive Reinforcement? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/positive-reinforcement.htm
Cherry, K. (2013). What Is Negative Reinforcement? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/negative-reinforcement.htm
Cherry, K. (2013). What Is positive Punishment? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/positive-punishment.htm
Cherry, K. (2013). What Is Negative Punishment? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/negative-punishment.htm
Cherry, K. (2013). What Is Punishment? Retrieved from
http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/punishment.htm Cherry, K. (2013). Introduction to Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond.htm
Cherry, K. (2013). Ivan Pavlov Biography (1849-1936). Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/pavlov.htm
Cherry, K. (2013). Pavlov's Dogs. How Ivan Pavlov Discovered Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/classicalconditioning/a/pavlovs-dogs.htm Fritscher, L. (2009). Punishment. Retrieved from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/punishment.htm
Fritscher, L. (2009). Reinforcement. Retrieved from
Kelly, M. (n/a). Net places. Positive and Negative Reinforcement. Retrieved from
Milburn, C. (2013, April 07). More teachers, but fewer staying the course. The Age National. Retrieved from
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. (1999). The Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the 21st Century. National Goals. Retrieved from MCEECDYA website http://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceecdya/nationalgoals/natgoals.htm Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. (2008). Melbourne Declaration on Education Goals for Young Australians. December 2008. Retrieved from MCEECDYA website http://www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/National_Declaration_on_the_Educational_Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf
Skinner, B.F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behaviour. New York: Macmillan.
Swenson, C. (2009). Burrhus Frederick Skinner. Retrieved from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/skinner.htm
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