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Copy of Metallurgy

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Matthew Goll

on 22 June 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Metallurgy

First Topic - AISI-SAE Numbering System
Applications of Metallurgy
The science that explains methods of refining and extracting metals from their ores and preparing them.

Our Definition
The science that explains the properties, behavior, and internal structure of metals.

The science that teaches us that properties of metals can be changed using various treatments, which allows us to tailor a metal's properties to its specific use.

The science that explores what makes metals behave the way they do.

Class Activity
Time to apply all of this knowledge!!!

*Complete Metallurgy Experiment #2 - Metal Designation

Class Activity
Complete Metallurgy Lab #1 - Metal Identification

*Scratch/File test
*Magnetic test
*Spark Test
Metals are classified as ferrous and nonferrous. Iron and steel are both ferrous metals.

Metallurgy Involves All Metals

Metallurgy Fundamentals

Stainless Steels are grouped into 4 main Categories

Austenitic S. Steels
Martenesitic S. Steels
Ferritic S. Steels
Precipitation Hardening S. Steels

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

There are hundreds of different types and grades of steel available today.
New steels are developed every day as the demand is present.

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

Sturgeon Bay – NWTC
Welding - Metallurgy

AISI / ASE Steel Classification

Tool steels are held to tighter specifications as far as the content of the steel.
Tool steels are very hard to weld. They need a high preheat, and a post weld heat.

# after letter indicates the alloy content. Higher # indicts higher alloying elements.

W – Water Hardening
S – Shock Resistant
O – Oil Hardening
A – Air Hardening
D – High Carbon High Chromium
H – Hot Work tool steel
T – Tungsten base tool steel
M – Molybdenum base type tool steel
F – Carbon tungsten type
P – Mold Steels

Tool Steels

First Digit represents the mayor alloying element.

Aluminum Alloys
1XXX – Aluminum 99% Min
2XXX - Copper
3XXX - Manganese
4XXX - Silicon
5XXX - Magnesium
6XXX – Magnesium and Silicon
7XXX - Zinc
8XXX – Other Elements

Aluminum Classification

405, 430, 446

Ferritic Stainless Steels.

Lower and cheapest Grade Stainless Steels

They are magnetic

They will Rust.

They weld easily.

4XX group

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

Austenitic Stainless Steels Include…201, 202, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, (308, 309 usually filler metals),
310, 314, 316, 317, 321, 347, 348

These are all non-magnetic as long as they are not cold-worked without annealing.

Austenitic Stainless Steels will be the most common you will run into in the welding world.
They contain 16-26% Chromium, which is what makes stainless “stainless”.
3XX group
These are the “high grades” of Stainless Steel.
Easiest Stainless Steels To Weld.

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

Very popular steel right now.
Resistant to high temperatures
Pipe roll cages on race cars.
Considered a HSLA steel.
Not lighter than steel.
Machines and bends similar to a 1018 carbon steel.
Very often GTAW.

Chromium – Molybdenum Steels

41xx (4130 most common)

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

Both Ni and Cr increase the hardenability of steel. Chromium brings resistance to corrosion and oxidation, high temperature strength and
abrasion resistance. Steels with added nickel offer much greater toughness at a specified carbon level. 
Best if annealed after welding.

Nickel – Chromium Steels

31xx, 32xx, 33xx, 34xx

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

Hard wearing steel.
Weld Nickel

Nickel is widely used as an alloy metal. These alloys are useful in corrosive environments, especially when combined with high pressure
and temperature. Other types of steel also are clad with nickel alloy to prevent corrosion.
Fair Weldability
Can become embrittled if contaminates are on metal.

Nickel Steels


AISI/SAE Steel Classification

High Impact Strength
Once used for helmets in WWI.
Difficult to machine. Have to use diamond or very hard carbide.
About as hard as 304 stainless steel.
Poor weldability because of high manganese content

Manganese Steels


AISI/SAE Steel Classification

Structural Steel Construction
These all will rust if exposed to elements.
Weldability decreases as the carbon content increases.
The most common type you will run into is low carbon or mild steel.

Carbon Steels


AISI/SAE Steel Classification

For example

1045 contains approximately 0.45% carbon

4130 contains approximately 0.30% carbon


The last 2 digits represent the average carbon content.

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

For Example

4130 contains approximately 1% Chrome


The second digit sometimes refers to the
percent of the dominant alloy.

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

1 – Carbon Steels
2 – Nickel Steels
3 - Nickel – Chromium Steels
40 &44 – Molybdenum Steels
41 – Chromium – Molybdenum Steels
43, 47, 81, 86, 87, 88, 93, 94, 97, 98, – Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Steels
46 & 48 Nickel – Molybdenum Steels
50, 51, 52 – Chromium Steels
61 – Chromium Steels
72 Tungsten Steels
92 – Silicon – Manganese Steels

The first two digits represents the Group or alloy type.

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

Non – Heat Treatable


Heat Treatable


Aluminum Classification

Precipitation hardening stainless steels are chromium and nickel containing steels that provide an optimum combination of the properties of martensitic and austenitic grades.
Like martensitic grades, they are known for their ability to gain high strength through heat treatment and they also have the corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels.
The high tensile strengths of precipitation hardening stainless steels come after a heat treatment process that leads to precipitation hardening of a martensitic or austenitic matrix. Hardening is achieved through the addition of one or more of the elements Copper, Aluminum, Titanium, Niobium, and Molybdenum.

Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels

Use PH numbers such as 17 -4PH, 17-7PH, 18-NI-Co-Mo

Ultra Strength S. Steel

Can have up to 300,000 PSI tensile strength

Very Expensive

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

Turbine blades, surgical steel, knives, ball bearings, anything that is very hard.
403, 410, 414, 416, 420, 431, 440, 501, 502.

Martensitic Stainless Steels are stronger than ferritic stainless steel but less corrosion resistant.

Martensitic stainless steels are hardenable by heat treatment.
4XX, and 5XX

Hardest Stainless Steel To Weld

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

High Hardenibility
Good Weldability
Resistant to hydrogen cracking
Ships, automobiles, drilling mining,
Tanks, especially ones exposed to high temperatures.

Molybdenum Steels


AISI/SAE Steel Classification

Both are very similar, except sometimes AISI uses a prefix to show what type of furnace was used to produce the steel.

AISI – American Iron and Steel Institute

SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers

AISI/SAE Steel Classification

The Structure of Atoms

Mass Number (A)=Number of protons (Z) +Number of neutrons (N)


Parts of an Atom

Metallurgy Fundamentals

What is Steel?

Comparing Iron and Steel

*4700 B.C.

*Semi-Pure Copper - Egyptians, Greeks, Bolivians, Romans, China, and India

*Scandinavians- Discovered puddles of molten metal around campfires. (Discovery of ores)
Discovery of Metals
Discovery of Metals
What is this all about?
What do the numbers mean?

ASTM 514 (a.k.a. T-1)
ASTM A 572

Sometimes they stand for something... others are just a name.
American Society of Testing and Materials
Full transcript