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Copy of Pyschology Timeline

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Michaela Taylor

on 24 October 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Pyschology Timeline

Victorian Era 1837-1901
Victorian Literature
Lewis Carroll: January 27, 1832-January 14, 1898 The Arts Popular Culture Alice in Wonderland Thespian Way Architecture Images Julia Margaret Cameron George Frederic Watts (1817- 1904) Alfred Lord Tennyson (1869) Gothic Revival Alfred Waterhouse -Natural History Musuem Colonel J.T. Boieau -Christ Church, Simla In 1845, the Irish Potato famine began. The famine began in September. The cause of the famine was quite mysterious, until it was revealed that it was caused due to an airborne fungus (phytophthora infestans). It was transported on ships traveling from North America to England. Winds spread the fungus from southern England to the countryside of Dublin. The potato famine was terrible. The Irish people had hopes for the new harvest in 1846, but to no avail. The Irish people only had enough potatoes to feed them for a single month. Because most of the money came from potato profits, many Irish people migrated to America to have a chance at a better life for them and their families. After the famine hunger still remained a huge problem for Ireland. Irish Potato
Famine Important events that
happened during the
Victorian Era Jack the Ripper First International
Olympic Games First Olympics was held in Athens, Greece from April 6 to April 15. It is the first international Olympics.
.The Olympics were regarded as a great success. There were 245 athletes (all men) from 14 nations. Americans won nine of the 12 track and field events, but Greece won the most medals with 47. Britain won seven medals. 2 gold, 3 silver, and 2 bronze. The Civil War In 1860 tension thickened between the North and South when republican Abraham Lincoln, who was opposed to slavery, won the election. It caused seven states to secede from the U.S. and form the Confederate States of America. Lewis Carroll wrote one of the most timeless tales of literature today. Alice in Wonderland has survived through the years as a tale not only of a mystical land and it's inhabitants, but also a nurturing story of maturity. Lewis Carroll was the pen name for the extraordinary author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. Dodgson suffered from sever hallucinations brought on by a neurological disease. Through these hallucinations Dodgson was able to depict very vivid yet strange tales congered up in his mind. The tales of Alice in Wonderland were told to a young girl named Alice Liddell, the daughter of Henry George Liddell. Miss Liddell loved the stories so much she persuaded Dodgson to write them down.The tale of Alice in wonderland then became immortal. Themes and Motifs of Alice in Wonderland
*Maturity- Alice falls asleep viewing the world through the eyes of a child. At the end of the book she wakes up viewing the world in a more mature manner.
*Curiosity- In Wonderland, Alice often finds herself in interesting situations because of her curiosity. This forces her to learn from her mistakes and think about her actions
* Identity- Alice is just a child, so when asked several times who she is she does not know exactly how to answer that question. Through the struggle of trying to explain herself she is forced to ponder on the matter more of who she is and what she stands for. What is Wonderland
Wonderland is not an imaginary state of Paradise as we would like to believe. In fact Wonderland is reality seen through the eyes of children. The writer uses vivid imagery to portray the setting as a dream. The literal interpretation of Alice in Wonderland is of a girl who falls asleep as a child, has a dream and wakes up mature. The moral of the story is that maturity will come one day where one will find identity through the many accidents made by youthful curiosity and folly. A major factor in the flourishing of modern art is the Royal Academy of Art. It was the most important fine art school in Great Britain. The Academy was divided into three branches : one to study work of previous artists, another to study living models, and the last to study painting. However the school was exclusive to talented artist with promise of success not the curiosity of the public. ~ born in Calcutta, India ~ started her career when she was 48, when she was given a camera as a gift ~ After her retirement, she moved to England where she took pictures of higher society people such as painter George Frederick Watts and Poet Lord Alfred Tennyson In the previous era of theatre, the focus of its play was to be as real as possible regarding to the acting, drama and costume. It was "setting the stage" for the next age of Realism. Popular theatre types in the Victorian Age were Operas and Comedies Oscar Wilde * Originally a writer born in Dublin, Ireland *The Importance of Being Earnest, famous romantic comedy (1895) was performed at the St. James Theatre. The play was set in London Vivian and Merlin (1874) Inspired Alfred Tennyson 5th book of Idlyllus For Merlin overtalk'd and overworn
Had yielded, told her all the charm and slept. And lost to life and use
Then in the moment, she put forth the charm
Of woven paces and of waving hands
And in the hollow oak he lay as dead,
And lost to life and use, and name and fame. The Irish Famine ~ a popular sculptor and painter
within the Symbolist movement ~ He was a popular for allegorical
paintings such as Hope and Love
Life ~ Became Royal Academian in 1867
under Queen Victoria directly until
her death in 1901 ~ He is said to have changed
the art of portraiture in
England Hope Love and Life * This play's plot is considered to be a paradox since none of the characters take any serious situation as a joking matter * A Common theme used to describe Wilde's play is look past the surface and the social class of a person to find who they really are. Charles Barry ~Big Ben (1834) - This architectual style was directly derived from the medieval Gothic style and applied to larger bulidings. The details included in Neo-Gothic were vergeboarding, finials, scalloping, lancet windows, and label stops. Gilbert and Sullivan Opererettas are considered a lighter version of an opera. Despite the French being the first to perform these in the early 1800s, Arthur Sullivan and William Gilbert is the more remembered artists. The two were brought to together in 1871 to create another well known operetta Thespis. However the popular opera is Pirates of Penzance Who is Oliver Twist?
Oliver Twist is a poor orphan boy living on the streets of London. He grew up in a place called "baby farm" and at the age of nine is removed to work. When put to work he is then placed with Mr. Sowerberry. He is treated well here but Mrs. Sowerberry nd Noah Claypole dislike him very much. After an altercation with Noah, Oliver decides to run away. Charles Dickens: February 7, 1812 - June 9, 1870 Charles Dickens was born in Portsmouth, England. After his father was placed into prison, he was forced to work in a factory. With little formal education he grew as a writer and wrote 15 novels! The troubles of his past and the knowledge of prevalent situations in his country were the driving forces behind his literary works, such as, the working class, extreme poverty, and orphans. In all of Dickens novels he was trying to address a certain situation. In Oliver Twist his main objective was to shed light on the true horrors of orphan life, criminal life, and the "laws" and "responsible"people used in the lives of less fortunate Europeans. Olivers Journey
After running away from Mr. Sowerberry, Oliver meets Nancy and Bill Sikes. Not only is Bill Sikes a brutal robber, him and Nancy also have a terrible relationship. Oliver is found caught up in various schemes and a burglary gone wrong dealing with these two and Fagin. His character is tested often throughout the book and through all the chaos he endures the question of self identity is still in the air. Good Vs. Evil
There were many topics in Oliver Twist but one of the most important ones were good verses evil. Oliver is confronted with a lot of difficult situations when he is placed with certain people in the novel. Their grotesque evil, and his childish naivete/foolishness are often placed side by side when it comes to his decisions making. The evils of the government and their laws to protect orphans are also highlighted. The corruption between certain "positive networks" and the genuine are of the younger generation are the categories under the topic of good and evil Dickens highlighted in the novel. The Origin of Species
Published in November of 1859, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life, made a huge impact on the science and religious community. That impact still effects us today. Charles Darwin: February 12 1809 - April 19,1882 Facts on Darwin
Born into a wealthy family
Mother died when he was eight years old
Originally studied to be a doctor, then changed his major to divinity
After his studies at Cambridge Darwin went to make discoveries in the Galapagos Islands... Career Paths and Discoveries
With his original plan of working in the medical field not satisfying his expectations, Darwin changed his major to divinity. He studied authors like Herschel, von Humbolt and Paley to understand their views on creation and the natural world. At the end of his college career, Darwin took his new found knowledge and itching curiosity to the Galapagos Islands to discover his own view of the natural world. His discoveries will change the shape of science and accuracy of creationism forever. Content of Origin of Species
The content of The Origin of Species was Darwin's theory of evolution. From discoveries of different forms of finches and plants that held many similar characteristics but drastically important differences, Darwin came to a particular conclusion. All things will eventually evolve to a better state. Through the eyes of stanch creationist, this was completely against the Bible and the most popular teaching at the time. Not only did this book challenge the facts of the Bible, but even scientist of the day challenged Darwin's logic in the theory of evolution by natural selection. Science Vs. Religion
Ever Since this book has been published evolution verses creation has been the biggest controversy. Not only does this topic cause huge debates in today's time, but it also caused tense debates during its era. Evolution is now taught in every class around the nation. It is a view known well to all scientist, christian or no-christian, and known around the globe for its data and its validity or lack there of. With his pen, paper and knowledge, Darwin changed the face of science forever. First Modern Olympics The First modern Olympics was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin. Coubertin was a French aristocrat and sports enthusiast. He founded the Union des Societes Francaises de Sports Athletiques. He first proposed his idea to the Union but it brought forth no action. Two years later, Coubertin organized a group of 79 delegates and pitched his idea. The rest is history. Founded the International Olympics Committee Philosophy 1. Progressive vs. Conservative
Progressives, Liberals, or Rationalists: Those called 'progressives' of the late 19th and early 20th century, including such figures as presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, were renowned for checking the rise of corporate power and abuses and expanding democratic rights domestically. Later, leaders who followed the progressive line on foreign policy created an American nation that was an international leader in an economic, military, and moral sense.
"At its core," John Halpin, senior advisor on the staff of the Center for American Progress writes, "progressivism is a non-ideological, pragmatic system of thought grounded in solving problems and maintaining strong values within society."
A progressive skier is unafraid to huck a 40 ft. cliff, but a progressive skier wears a helmet." Once again, Geoff the Philosopher/Intern gives us a glimpse of what progressive means to him. Free of ideological structures that tie leaders to strict policy courses, progressivism is averse to simple answers and flourishes within the details of the problems facing our society. Progressives encourage personal and moral responsibility, and promote respect for ethical values. Progressives aren't simply liberals; progressives see the world for what it is, accept it as ever-changing and dynamic, and choose the best course of action in line with decidedly American values.

Conservatives, Tories, or Reactionaries: First, the conservative believes that there exists an enduring moral order. That order is made for man, and man is made for it: human nature is a constant, and moral truths are permanent. Conservatives believe in traditional family values and the sanctity of marriage, small, non-invasive government, strong national defense focused on protection and the fight against terrorism, commitment to faith and religion, the right to life for every human being 2. Hebrew vs. Hellene (or Moral vs. Aesthetic)
Hebrews: Hebrew is another name for the Jewish people of the Victorian era. Judaism is a monotheistic faith, meaning that Jews believe there is only One God. Often this God is beyond our ability to comprehend, but God is nevertheless present in our everyday lives. How individual Jews choose to understand this manifestation of the divine varies. Some connect with God through prayer, others see the divine in the majesty of the natural world, others may not think about God on a daily basis. Each individual's relationship with God is unique and personal.
Judaism teaches that every person (Jewish and non-Jewish) was created "b'tzelem Elohim," which is Hebrew for "in the image of God." For this reason every person is equally important and has an infinite potential to do good in the world. People have the freewill to make choices in their lives and each of us is responsible for the consequences of those choices. Judaism believes that Jews are uniquely connected with each other. Regardless of where we live in the world, all Jews are part of a global Jewish community.
The Torah is Judaism's most important text. It contains stories and commandments that teach us about life and death. It contains the 10 Commandments as well as the 613 commandments (mitzvot). All Jews consider the 10 Commandments to be the most important commandments in the Torah, though not all Jews adhere to the 613 mitzvot (one of the main differences between the different branches of Judaism).
Judaism teaches that one day a Messiah (a person from God) will unite the world and bring peace to humanity. The concept of the Messiah is not a central part of every Jew's belief system, but tradition does teach that the Messiah will be descended from the family of King David.

Hellenes: Hellenes also known as Aesthetics is the study of beauty and taste, whether in the form of the comic, the tragic, or the sublime. The word derives from the Greek aisthetikos, meaning "of sense perception." Aesthetics has traditionally been part of philosophical pursuits like epistemology or ethics, but it started to come into its own and become a more independent pursuit under Immanuel Kant, the German philosopher who saw aesthetics as a unitary and self-sufficient type of human experience. Because of art's historical role in the transmission of religion and religious beliefs, atheists should have something to say on this topic.
Aesthetics is a concept not easily broken down into simpler ideas, making it difficult to explain. When we speak of something that creates an aesthetic experience, we are usually talking about some form of art; yet the mere fact that we are discussing a work of art does not guarantee that we are also discussing aesthetics — the two are not equivalent. Not all works of art necessarily create an aesthetic experience, for example when we look at a painting to determine how much we can sell it for.
Important Questions for an Aesthetics.
What can life be like?
What is beautiful?
Why do we find certain things beautiful? Fashion 1. Early Victorian Fashion 1837-56
The look of demure prim gentility was emphasized by the loss of the great hats in 1835 for bonnets. Lavishly trimmed bonnets stayed in fashion for half a century and weren't worn much after 1890.
By 1840 the collapsed sleeve was much narrower, but still retained a restrictive seam line on the dropped shoulder. The early Victorian tight fitting pointed bodice was much longer and had a very small tight fitting waist. All the boned bodice seam lines and trims were directional to emphasize the small waists. The boning also helped stop the bodice from horizontal creasing.
This meant that an early Victorian woman's arm movements were restricted. The limited range of arm movements increased the appearance of demure vulnerability and helplessness we so often associate with Victorian femme fatales. Softer more demure plain colours and small delicate dimity patterns helped to add a neat ladylike quality to gowns.
As bell shaped skirts of the 1830s became wider and they began to also look dome shaped. By 1842 they needed a great deal of support from extra petticoats. The wider skirts were supported by stiffened fabrics like linen which used horsehair in the weave. 'Crin' is French for horsehair so the word crinoline suggesting a crin lining was used for any garment area that was stiffened to give shaped foundation. 2.Mid-Late Fashion 1860-1901
We arrive at 1860 with four significant facts that were to seriously affect fashion of the future. Firstly the sewing machine had been invented, secondly clothes would in future become couture design led, thirdly synthetic dyes would make available intense colours. Fourthly in 1860 the crinoline domed skirt silhouette had a flattened front and began to show a dramatic leaning toward the garment back.
In 1866 the new Princess gown also changed the line of fashionable dress. The Princess gown was cut in one piece and consisted of a number of joined panels fitted and gored from shoulder to hem that gave the figure shape through seaming.
By 1878 the cuirasse bodices had reached the thighs. The cuirasse bodice was corset like and dipped even deeper both front and back extending well down the hips creating the look of a body encased in armour.
By 1880 the two ideas merged and the whole of the dress was in Princess line style with shoulder to hem panels. The silhouette was slim and elongated even more by the train. No bustle was needed for the cuirasse bodice or Princess sheath dress, but a small pad would have helped any trained fabric to fall well.
Suddenly out of nowhere in 1883 a new jutting out shelf like style of bustle appeared. It had been shown in Paris in 1880, but as a fashion took off later outside of Paris. It reappeared even larger than ever as a hard shape that gave women a silhouette like the hind legs of a horse as shown in the page heading. Music 1There was always a piano and a number of singers who would perform, and eventually more instruments were added and some Halls would have their own in Hall orchestra. If you think of the Beatles song ‘When I’m 64′, this is a very good approximation of the Music Hall band and sound.
Vesta Tilley, who was a huge star on the circuit from about 1890 to 1920 when she gave her last performance at 58. The song, Burlington Bertie from Bow was one of her signature songs and as well-known as Single Ladies (Put A Ring On It) back in the day.
Famous singers had songs written specifically for them and they would tour the circuit almost exactly like their american vaudevillian counterparts. Indeed many performers would at some point cross the pond to do a romp on the other side. Stages were built even bigger, the bands got bigger, the laughs, the cheers, the drunken sing alongs, the intercrowd socializing between numbers… it was a way of life for many patrons as well as performers.
Around 1900 the Music Hall phenomena was at its zenith. But then came radio and film and after WWII, with the advent of television, it died quickly. By the late 1950s it was gone.
It is almost impossible to exaggerate the importance of music in the lives of the Victorians, from those in high society to the working classes, and across the nation. In a world that had only limited methods of mechanically reproducing sounds in the home (such as musical boxes), hearing live music performed was a precious thing, to be cherished forever.
But most people did not seek only to be entertained by professional musicians, they delighted in making music themselves. The series of affordable scores of choral repertoire issued by the music publisher Novello and Co. (some of which are on display) serviced much of the ever-growing demand for parts for amateur choirs. Likewise, thousands of songs and piano pieces, in styles ranging from the high serious to the popular, were composed and published for the amateur market, which was growing fast, in tandem with increasingly affordable parlor pianos. The Crystal Palace Polkas show one publisher capitalizing on the moment of the Great Exhibition of 1851. In the case of well-known songs whose tunes were committed to memory and sung unaccompanied, issuing the words alone was often adequate. In addition, much that was heard on the professional concert platform was frequently packaged for domestic replication, from transcriptions of Beethoven symphonies for piano duet to the arrangement of popular numbers, such as Christy’s Minstrels’ songs, for voices and piano.
Public performances nevertheless loom large in several corners of the exhibit, through vestiges of concerts, operas, oratorios, and even a ventriloquist’s act. The comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan, hugely popular in their day, are represented by a color caricature of Sullivan and a little-known depiction of Gilbert reading Utopia Ltd to his singer-actors. Meanwhile, the relationship between religion and Victorian musical life is signaled by a vocal score of Edward Elgar’s oratorio The Dream of Gerontius published by Novello, in a series that also included Handel’s Messiah, Haydn’s Creation and Mendelssohn’s Elijah.
We also demonstrate how, for the Victorians, leisure could be deeply self-improving, particularly in the sphere of high art music. Program notes and music appreciation handbooks were used by many Victorian concert and opera-goers, with program notes circulating some forty years before their use became widespread in Europe or the USA. George Grove’s concert notes, and a guide to the operas of Wagner, tell some of this story. There were many changes in British musical life across Victoria’s reign, of which the extraordinary growth of amateur music-making and concert life, and the widening social access to music, were obvious manifestations. Another shift involved improvements in the training of musicians, and a gradual relaxation in the taboos that had once prevented women from learning orchestral instruments and performing in public. Here, images of the time are especially revealing. Sports For certain traditional sports and pastimes—for example fishing, fox-hunting, and deer-hunting—the Victorian era meant relative continuity for the participants. Large crowds had assembled to watch horse races long before the onset of the century, but in the nineteenth century they became yet more numerous. Thus Parliament adjourned for Derby Day at Epsom.
Many earlier sports, such as animal-baiting, were decried, even as other sports, such as rowing, were pioneered. The immensely popular annual Oxford-Cambridge boat race on the Thames began in 1829. During the first half of the nineteenth century, public schools became converts to “muscular Christianity,” inspired by organized team play in rowing, cricket, and two forms of football (rugby and soccer), as well as competitions in track and field and a variety of racquet games.
Such games became increasingly common outside schools and universities during the mid-Victorian years, an era of athletic consolidation, bureaucratization, and regulation. Thus began the British Open golf championship (1860), the Marquess of Queensberry rules for boxing (1867), the Football Association Cup (1871), the County Cricket Championship (1873), and the first World Tennis Championship at Wimbledon for men (1877) and women (1884). By 1900, on most Saturday afternoons, more than a million largely working-class boosters filled football stadiums where professional urban teams competed. In the meantime, the redoubtable W. G. Grace (1848-1915) had become renowned as the ablest and most imposing cricket player ever. “W.G.” became as much a household name as had “W.E.G.,” William Ewart Gladstone, the four-time Liberal Prime Minister. In 1878, the first Australian cricket team visited England, and during subsequent years such exchanges among England, Australia, New Zealand, India, and the Caribbean became increasingly common. By then, it was not only telegraph and cable lines but also athletes that tied the British Empire together; the quadrennial Commonwealth Games have continued into the twenty-first century. Although some Victorian sports transcended social class boundaries, supporters of others continued to exalt the successful amateur sportsman with independent means. Thus the public school ethos and the ideal of amateurism were transmuted, from 1896 on, into the Olympic Games. The twenty-four volume Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes (1885-1895) reminds us of the sheer variety of athletic activities to be encountered during the later Victorian years: cycling, swimming, cricket, golf, mountaineering, fencing, boxing, wrestling, skating, curling, ice-hockey, boating, yachting, carriage-driving, horse-racing, steeple-chasing, archery, falconry, shooting, football, track and field, billiards, tennis, racket-ball, fishing, and hunting. Analogously, the Ladies Field reminds us of how many women might be found involved in them, both as spectators and as participants. Victorian leisure had become a big business. Works Cited
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Unknown. "George Frederic Watts, OM." Watts. Authentication, certificates of authenticity and expert appraisals. 23 Oct. 2012 <http://www.artexpertswebsite.com/pages/artists/watts.php>.
"Victorian Art Institutions: A Contemporary Survey of Academies, Schools and Galleries." Victorian Web. 21 Oct. 2012 <http://victorianweb.org/art/institutions1.html>.
"Victorian England." Victorian England. 11 Oct. 2012 <http://www.english.uwosh.edu/roth/VictorianEngland.htm>.
"The Victorian Era Music Hall." The Steampunk Opera. 23 Oct. 2012 <http://steampunkopera.wordpress.com/2011/04/13/the-victorian-era-music-hall/>.
"Victorian Era Sports - Home." Victorian Era Sports - Home. 23 Oct. 2012 <http://victoriansports.weebly.com/>.
"Victorian era." Wikipedia. 10 Sept. 2012. Wikimedia Foundation. 10 Oct. 2012 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_era>.
"Victorian Photography." Victorian Photography. 13 Oct. 2012 <http://victorianweb.org/photos/index.html>.
"What Do Jews Believe?" About.com Judaism. 23 Oct. 2012 <http://judaism.about.com/od/judaismbasics/a/whatdojewsbelieve.htm>.
"What is Aesthetics? Aesthetics is the Philosophy of Art, Beauty, Perception." About.com Agnosticism / Atheism. 23 Oct. 2012 <http://atheism.about.com/od/philosophybranches/p/Aesthetics.htm>.
"What is Progressive?" Alternet. 23 Oct. 2012 <http://www.alternet.org/story/23706/what_is_progressive>. Review Time! Jack the Ripper was a serial killer who was prevalent from August 7 to September 10, 1888. He killed five prostitutes and mutilated there bodies in unusual ways. The way in which he killed his victims led to the theory that he had some knowledge of anatomy. The killings took place in Whitechapel, Spitafields, Aldgate and the City of London. Though Jack the Ripper did not kill many people he is one of the most famous serial killers. He is famous due to a number of factors. One factor is that he was never apprehended. Jack the Ripper is just a moniker for the man who committed the crimes. Also, the newspapers had a large amount of coverage of the murders. The newspapers created a menacing media figure. These factors contributed to jack the ripper becoming an elusive and terrifying character. In 1837, the Victorian era officially started, when Alexandria
Victoria was crowned queen. The era, is named after her. The Victorian era was generally a peaceful time period and Britain had national self confidence.
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